DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERINGCOVENANT UNIVERSITY PETROLEUM ENGINEERINGLABORATORYDETERMINATION OF SAND CONTENT IN AN AMOUNT OR MEASURE OF DRILLING FLUID.
NAME: NWOZOR UGOCHUKWU CHRISTOPHERMATRIC NO: 15CN03276GROUP: GROUP E PET327DATE PREFORMED: 19TH JAN. 2018DATE SUBMITTED: 21ST JAN. 2018 1. Table of content Page TITLE OF PAGE 1 TABLE OF CONTENT 2 ABSTRACT 3 CHAPTERS 1. INTRODUCTION 4 .THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES 2. APPARATUS AND EQUATIONS 5 4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES AND PRECUATIONS 6 5.
RESULTS 7 6. DISCUSSIONS 8 7. CONCLUSIONS 9 8. RECOMMENDATIONS 10 REFERENCES 11 ABSTRACTWell-known that solid particles largerthan 74 micros (200 mesh) are categorized as API sand. Sand content determinationof drilling fluids is needed because these sand particles can be highly rough,and can cause damages to pump, drill bits, and drill pipe, too much sand can result into depositionof a thick filter cake on the walls of the hole, or it may settle in the holearound the tools when circulation is temporarily stationary, meddling with the drillingoperation tools of settling casing. The sand content test for set is used inthe test for sand content determination.
3.INTRODUCTION Due to the difficulties of using sand, it is very noticeableto know the sand composition for every drilling fluid to be used. The tool usedin this, is the called the ” SAND CONTENT KIT”, which contains the measuringtube, wash bottle, combined funnel with screen mesh.
The drive of thisexperiment aids to determine the sand content in a specific quantity ofDrilling fluid. Drilling fluid is a fluid used in drilling oil and gas wells. Ithas numerous advantages, One of them is to maintain downhole pressure. Theaddition of sand helps achieve that goal.
Another component is Bentonite. Italso contains sand but in a little quantity. Water, it aids in the mixture ofeverything to be used. It’s a vital aspect of this experiment. 4. EQUIPMENT ANDAPPARATUS 1. SANDCONTENT KITInside the content kitare the following apparatusesi.
Combined funnel with screen mesh:This is used to conduct previously mixed drilling fluid into the measuringtube. It also serves as a filter.ii. Measuring tube:it distributed into two levels, which is the mud level and water level.
Its usedfor calculating mud and water.iii. Mesh:it avoids any sand that can cause damage from entering into the tube.iv. Wash bottle:it aids in washing the sand content left in the evaluating tube.2. Electricmixer3.
Beakerand spatula4. Measuringcylinder5. Weighingbalance6. Bentonite7. Waterand sand 5.
PROCEDURES1. Measured 35g of Bentonite, 5g of sand also350ml of water2. Pourmixture into electric mixer to have equal mixture.3. Onthe evaluating tube is a point called the mud level, pour this mixture to reachthat level.
4. Alsoon the same calculating tube contains water level, increase the amount of waterto the mixture to reach the water level.5. Jigglestrongly to ensure unity.6. Dispensemixture into the mesh, 7. Takewash bottle to wash residual sand content to ensure all the mixture in the calculatingtube gets into the mesh.
8. Reversethe mesh containing a funnel in it, and take wash bottle containing water and pourit over the mesh occupying the sand particles, to allow to fall into calculatingtube9. Letthe sand particles to settle before taking the percentage or fraction of sandcontent.PRECAUTION:1. Iconfirmed I avoided error due to parallax when taking my readings on mymeasuring tube.2.
Iconfirmed that my mixtures were thoroughly mixture to get similar mixture.3. Iconfirmed that the sand particles I discharged into the measuring tube settledbefore I began with my readings.MAINTAINANCE1. Cleancarefully after each useRESULTS When my experiment was carried out Ifound out the percentage of sand content confined in the drilling mud to be 0.
3%.This was done with the help of a sand content kit. DISCUSSION1. Whatare the advantages of sand content Kit? Answer: it offers information whendetermining the sand content of a drilling fluid through the use of numerousinstruments as listed above.2. Whatare the disadvantages of sand? Answer:Sand particles can be highly rough, and can cause damages to pump, drill bits,and drill pipe.
3. Whatis the recommend bentonite to be Used Answer: Wyoming bentonite, it has thecapability to absorb and to bind together and can hydrate eagerly. CONCLUSION To complete, I will say that the sand content of anydrilling fluid must be identified because of that damages that sand attain todrilling equipment.
RECOMMENDATIONThe Sand content must not be high so that it does not disturbdrilling speed. REFERENCENo reference cited.