DEPARTMENT 2. APPARATUS AND EQUATIONS 5 4. EXPERIMENTAL

 

DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

COVENANT UNIVERSITY

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PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
LABORATORY

DETERMINATION OF SAND CONTENT IN AN AMOUNT OR MEASURE OF DRILLING FLUID.

 

NAME: NWOZOR UGOCHUKWU CHRISTOPHER

MATRIC NO: 15CN03276

GROUP: GROUP E

                                         PET
327

DATE PREFORMED: 19TH JAN. 2018

DATE SUBMITTED: 21ST JAN. 2018

 

                                              
1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of content
 
                                                                                           
Page
TITLE
OF PAGE                                                                                                                                          
1
TABLE
OF CONTENT                                                                                                                                
2
ABSTRACT                                                                                                         
                                          3
                                                                                                                                             
 
CHAPTERS
1.
INTRODUCTION                                                                                                                                     4
  .THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES                                                                                                                    

2.
APPARATUS AND EQUATIONS                                                                                                         
5
4.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES AND PRECUATIONS                                                           
     6
5.
RESULTS                                                                                                                                                    7
6.
DISCUSSIONS                                                                                                                   
                       8
7.
CONCLUSIONS                                                                                                                                       
9
8.
RECOMMENDATIONS                                                            
                                                             10
REFERENCES                                                                                                                                             
11
 
 

ABSTRACT

Well-known that solid particles larger
than 74 micros (200 mesh) are categorized as API sand. Sand content determination
of drilling fluids is needed because these sand particles can be highly rough,
and can cause damages to pump, drill bits, and  drill pipe, too much sand can result into deposition
of a thick filter cake on the walls of the hole, or it may settle in the hole
around the tools when circulation is temporarily stationary, meddling with the drilling
operation tools of settling casing. The sand content test for set is used in
the test for sand content determination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                 
3.

INTRODUCTION

 

Due to the difficulties of using sand, it is very noticeable
to know the sand composition for every drilling fluid to be used. The tool used
in this, is the called the ” SAND CONTENT KIT”, which contains the measuring
tube, wash bottle, combined funnel with screen mesh. The drive of this
experiment aids to determine the sand content in a specific quantity of
Drilling fluid. Drilling fluid is a fluid used in drilling oil and gas wells. It
has numerous advantages, One of them is to maintain downhole pressure. The
addition of sand helps achieve that goal. Another component is Bentonite. It
also contains sand but in a little quantity. Water, it aids in the mixture of
everything to be used. It’s a vital aspect of this experiment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                    4.

 

EQUIPMENT AND
APPARATUS

1.    SAND
CONTENT KIT

Inside the content kit
are the following apparatuses

i.               
Combined funnel with screen mesh:
This is used to conduct previously mixed drilling fluid into the measuring
tube. It also serves as a filter.

ii.            
Measuring tube:
it distributed into two levels, which is the mud level and water level. Its used
for calculating mud and water.

iii.          
Mesh:
it avoids any sand that can cause damage from entering into the tube.

iv.          
Wash bottle:
it aids in washing the sand content left in the evaluating tube.

2.    Electric
mixer

3.    Beaker
and spatula

4.    Measuring
cylinder

5.    Weighing
balance

6.    Bentonite

7.    Water
and sand

                                             5.

PROCEDURES

1.   
Measured 35g of Bentonite, 5g of sand also
350ml of water

2.    Pour
mixture into electric mixer to have equal mixture.

3.    On
the evaluating tube is a point called the mud level, pour this mixture to reach
that level.

4.    Also
on the same calculating tube contains water level, increase the amount of water
to the mixture to reach the water level.

5.    Jiggle
strongly to ensure unity.

6.    Dispense
mixture into the mesh,

7.    Take
wash bottle to wash residual sand content to ensure all the mixture in the calculating
tube gets into the mesh.

8.    Reverse
the mesh containing a funnel in it, and take wash bottle containing water and pour
it over the mesh occupying the sand particles, to allow to fall into calculating
tube

9.    Let
the sand particles to settle before taking the percentage or fraction of sand
content.

PRECAUTION:

1.    I
confirmed I avoided error due to parallax when taking my readings on my
measuring tube.

2.    I
confirmed that my mixtures were thoroughly mixture to get similar mixture.

3.    I
confirmed that the sand particles I discharged into the measuring tube settled
before I began with my readings.

MAINTAINANCE

1.    Clean
carefully after each use

RESULTS

When my experiment was carried out I
found out the percentage of sand content confined in the drilling mud to be 0.3%.
This was done with the help of a sand content kit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DISCUSSION

1.    What
are the advantages of sand content Kit?

 Answer: it offers information when
determining the sand content of a drilling fluid through the use of numerous
instruments as listed above.

2.    What
are the disadvantages of sand?

Answer:
Sand particles can be highly rough, and can cause damages to pump, drill bits,
and drill pipe.

 

3.    What
is the recommend bentonite to be Used

 Answer: Wyoming bentonite, it has the
capability to absorb and to bind together and can hydrate eagerly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

To complete, I will say that the sand content of any
drilling fluid must be identified because of that damages that sand attain to
drilling equipment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RECOMMENDATION

The Sand content must not be high so that it does not disturb
drilling speed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE

No reference cited.