A component of fluency in which readers
identify words accurately and quickly when reading, and writers spell words
efficiently to continue writing.
combine the sounds represented by letters to pronounce a word; it’s a
phonemic awareness and phonics strategy.
A mark shaped like a smile
that’s placed over a vowel to indicate that it represents a short sound
(e.g., ba ?th, e ?nd, and cu ?t).
activity in which children replace words that have been deleted from a text.
phonological, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic information that children
rely on as they read.
A sound produced when the tongue glides from
one sound to another; it’s represented by two vowels (e.g., oy–boy, ou–house,
read to locate information or answer questions; in contrast with aesthetic
reading, or reading for pleasure.
A procedure for segmenting sounds in a word
that involves drawing a box to represent each sound.
A technique for choosing “just right” books.
that sound alike but are spelled differently (e.g., there–their–they’re);
also called homonyms.
second level of comprehension; readers draw inferences using clues in the
text, implied information, and their own background knowledge.
individually administered reading test used to determine children’s independent,
instructional, and frustration levels and listening capacity level.
method of estimating the difficulty level of a text.
horizontal mark that’s placed over a vowel to indicate that it represents a
long sound (e.g., r u? le, go? , b??ke, and pa?ge).
strategy for categorizing and analyzing a child’s oral reading errors.
smallest meaningful part of a word; sometimes it’s a word (e.g., cup, hope),
and sometimes it’s not a whole word (e.g., -ly, bi-)
syllable ending in a vowel sound (e.g., sea and through)
sound; it’s represented in print with slashes (e.g., /s/ and /th/)
social use system of language
ability to orally read sentences expressively, with appropriate phrasing and
theme of a multi genre project.
part of a syllable (or one-syllable word) that begins with the vowel (e.g.,
ing in string)
neutral vowel sound in an unaccented syllable of words with two or more
syllables; the sound is marked with ,
which resembles an upside-down lowercase e.
belief in their capability to succeed and reach their goals; children who
have self-efficacy are more likely to be higher achieving readers and writers
devices and display conventions that authors use to achieve particular
effects in their writing, such as point of view, metaphors, rhyme, and
or more adjacent vowels in a syllable that represent a single sound (e.g.,
bread, eight, pain, saw).
alphabetized chart posted in the classroom listing words children are
language tools that writers use to convey meaning effectively, including
imagery, humor, alliteration, sentence structure, and viewpoint.
distance between a child’s actual developmental level and his or her
potential level that can be reached with teacher scaffolding.