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Crystallized ConfectionPhysical ScienceExperimental InvestigationNia Innis640 W. Scott St.Chicago, IL 60610Grade 8Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 3Purpose and Hypothesis Page 4Review of Literature                        Page 5-6Materials and Procedure Page 7-9Results Page 10Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 11-12Reference List Page 13-14Acknowledgements A big thanks to my parents for letting me use the kitchen and for cleaning up some of my spills with me.  As well as Mrs. Machado for approving my project and guiding me through the process.Purpose and Hypothesis The purpose of this project is to discover which of three sugars (dark brown, powdered, and organic pure cane) crystallizes the fastest.  I hypothesize that the white sugar will crystallize the fastest because the powdered sugar will be too fine of a powder to crystallize and the process of evaporation is used when sugar crystallizes and dark brown sugar stays moist for a longer time than organic pure cane sugar.Review of LiteratureFor this project, I had to research about the scientific aspects of the experiment and what areas it touched upon and more.  First, I had to discover what was really going on with my experiment and since I was basically making rock candy with different sugars, I had to discover the science behind rock candy. Basically, rock candy is created by two different processes, precipitation and evaporation.  When a saturated sugar solution is created and cooled, it’s unstable and, “it contains more solute (in this case, sugar) than can stay in a liquid form—so the sugar will come out of solution, forming what’s called a precipitate. This method is called precipitation.”(exploratorium.edu).  Then, as water evaporates from the solution, the solution becomes even more saturated and more sugar molecules in the solution will latch onto the seed crystals on the string(exploratorium.edu).  Overall, making rock candy or doing my project is dealing with the rate of crystallization, “the speed at which nuclei grow into crystals.”(foodscience-avenue.com).In addition to sugar crystallization, I needed to have a basic understanding of the process the sugar solution I would make would go through and it touched on molecules and more.  The sugar crystals grow molecule by molecule. Typically, they’ll attach to the seed crystals on the string because as the water in the supersaturated solution evaporates, the solution becomes more saturated and sugar molecules continue to come out of the solution(exploratorium.edu).  These sugar molecules establish hydrogen bonds with one another as the water boils away(decodedscience.org) and will begin to crystallize back into a solid at the least provocation(exploratorium.edu).  To sum it up, the molecular structure of rock candy roots from these things called seed crystals and when water evaporates out of the solution, the sugar molecules rise out of the solution and begin to return to a sweet, solid state again.Lastly, I also had to learn what the differences were in the sugars I would use to help me formulate my hypothesis.  I learned that, “Brown sugar is made from adding a small amount of molasses to the white crystals (2).”(caloriesecrets.net) and it is more moist than white sugar.  Powdered sugar is sugar that has been ground into a very fine powder(huffingtonpost.com).  Lastly, organic pure cane sugar is, “As it turns out, pure cane sugar is that which is milled out of sugarcane – and sugarcane alone.”(organic-sugar.com).  The three sugars are different in origin and creation in some way .So, in order to be well informed about my project and how it would work, I needed to learn about the process the sugars would go through, how they’ll begin to actually crystallize and their molecules, and the differences between the sugars.  I learned that the rate of crystallization and the two methods of precipitation and evaporation play into how the sugar actually crystallizes.  As well as that sugar molecules are a big part of sugar becoming solid again.  And, organic pure cane sugar, dark brown sugar, and powdered sugar are different physically and as well as their creation and origin vary.  All these factors play into the success of my experiment and having this knowledge helped me understand and reflect on my tests.Materials and ProcedureMaterials:950 mL of Dark Brown Sugar950 mL of Powdered Sugar950 mL of Organic Pure Cane Sugar3 Tall, Glass JarsString or Twine3 PencilsWater (475 mL for each type of sugar)Stove3 Paperclips3 Paper Towels3 Spoons3 Large PotsProcedure:Use a stove to boil two cups of water or 475 mL.Recommend Purified WaterPour in 4 cups or 950 mL of white sugar in ½ cup increments and constantly stir the sugar with a spoon.  Make sure all sugar dissolves.If the sugar doesn’t seem to be dissolving, continue heating up the water.Remove solution from heat and let cool for 15-20 min.Pour Solution into tall, cylindrical, glass jar.Tie some string around a pencil or stick.  As well as tie the other end of the string to a paper clip.The string’s length should be ? as long as the glass.Dip String in the sugar-water solution for a few seconds, take it out and lay it on wax paper to COMPLETELY DRY!Then, lower string into the solution and rest pencil on glass.Place glass in a cool, dark space and cover the top with a paper towel.Everyday, watch and record if there are any sugar crystals forming.Do this for 7 days.  DO NOT REMOVE STRING FROM GLASS, UNLESS DIFFICULT TO SEE GROWTH!Take Pictures!After the last day of testing, remove the string from the solution and write down your final observations.Then, you just go through this process with the other two sugars.  These are not on separate days and weeks.  All three sugars are crystallizing simultaneously.  Use a different spoon and pot for each sugar or make sure to rinse thoroughly.ResultsType of SugarDay 1 GrowthDay 2 GrowthDay 3 GrowthDay 4 GrowthDay 5 GrowthDay 6 GrowthDay 7 GrowthGrowth OverallOrganic Pure Cane00000111Dark Brown00000000Powdered000000003- A Lot Of Growth2-Some Growth1-Very Little Growth0-No GrowthObservations-Powdered Sugar Solution was really thick, Dark Brown Sugar Solution was very thin, and the Organic Pure Cane Sugar solution was in between the two.Dark Brown Sugar tastes a sweet, but only the tiniest hint of bitterness.  The Organic Pure Cane Sugar is perfectly sweet.Final Result:The organic pure cane sugar had the most growth, while the powdered sugar and dark brown sugar had none.Conclusion, Reflection, ApplicationMy science fair project is about sugar crystallization and I wanted to find out which type of sugar crystallized the fastest.  I hypothesized that the organic pure cane sugar would crystallize the fastest since dark brown sugar is moist for a longer period of time and when making rock candy or crystallizing sugar, evaporation is used.  As well as I thought powdered sugar would be too fine a powder to crystallize well.  I tested it by making a sugar solution by boiling water and pouring in sugar and mixing the two, then latching seed crystals onto some string and then placing that string into tall jars and keeping them in a cool dark space, or my pantry.  I noticed that the sugar took an extremely long time to crystallize and that for the organic pure cane sugar, the crystals grew throughout the solution and not on the seed crystals formed on the string.  Also that each solution had a different thickness that could be noticed when poured.  My hypothesis was correct and I know this because only the organic pure cane sugar had crystals forming and the others did not, according to my data.  I learned that it takes a long time for some sugar to crystallize and that organic pure cane sugar has the fastest rate of crystallization out of dark brown sugar, powdered sugar, and itself.I think my tests were mostly fair.  However, no growth was really shown which was a complete bummer, but I believe it had something to do with the type of sugars or an error.  I believe that I may have made certain errors in the process.  I know that for the sugar solutions, it became really difficult for me to tell if all the sugar had dissolved and that might have affected the evaporation of the sugar molecules latching onto the string properly and could’ve changed my results.  As well as I’m not sure if all of the sugar I used was precise as I’d liked it to be and some solutions spilled or a very, very small amount wouldn’t fit all the way into some of my jars.  I wouldn’t really change much at all, but the one thing I would change would be the jar height.  I wish I had more of the same jar because mainly only one jar fit the entire solution and wouldn’t overflow.  Otherwise, I’m somewhat satisfied with how my experiment went and I think I’d want to further my exploration by looking at the molecular structure of other sweets or materials and to further my investigation, I would try those other substances and learn more about molecular structures and compounds.This experiment can apply to a real world situation.  Many people, typically kids, enjoy eating rock candy, but never really buy it or know how to make it.  This experiment can tell kids how to make it for themselves and not have to go out and buy it at whatever expensive prices stores and other online sites sell it for.  However, this is not only applied to a kids desire for sugary substances, but it can relate to science.  This type of experiment touches upon chemistry, specifically molecular structure and crystallization.  Although this experiment doesn’t fully explain crystallization and molecular structure, it provides information on how fast some forms of crystallization may take and why it takes so long with certain substances, like the different types of sugars.  Lastly, the experiment does connect to our lives a bit because many substances and items in our lives have molecular structures and are made of solutions which play into the qualities of these materials and why we use them.  Reference ListScience of Candy: What is Sugar? | Exploratorium. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/candy/sugar.htmlThis website provides a lot of information on sugar in candy and sugar crystallization.Klamer, H. (2016, June 16). White Sugar vs. Brown Sugar: What is the Healthiest Option? Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.caloriesecrets.net/white-sugar-vs-brown-sugar-what-is-the-healthiest-option/This site gives more background information on brown sugar and white sugar and compares them to one another.Spiegel, A. (2014, December 09). Everything You’ve Always Wondered About Powdered Sugar But Haven’t Wanted To Ask. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/12/09/powdered-sugar_n_6289842.htmlThis website contains information on powdered sugar.Summers, V., Jaksich, J. A., Asiado, T., & D. (2017, March 29). Cane Juice Crystallization to Raw Sugar: A Chemical or a Physical Change? Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.decodedscience.org/cane-juice-crystallization-raw-sugar-chemical-physical-change/60980This site has information on crystallization and how it connects to sugar.Babar, A. (2014, February 09). Crystallization of sugar. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/ammarbabar18/crystallization-of-sugarThis website has a slideshow on the process of crystallization and how it works in the sugar industry.Rock Candy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/candy/rock-pop.htmlThis website provides information about the science of rock candy and how the sugar crystallization process is involved into making it.Husband, T. (2014, October). The Sweet Science of Candymaking. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/past-issues/archive-2014-2015/candymaking.htmlThis source is an in depth explanation about the science behind rock candy and it explains how sugar crystallizes and why it does.FOOD SCIENCE. (2010, April 4). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://www.foodscience-avenue.com/2010/04/crystallization-of-sugar.htmlThis source explains sugar crystallization piece by piece.Why Some People Prefer Using Pure Cane Sugar. (2012, March 17). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://www.organic-sugar.com/why-some-people-prefer-using-pure-cane-sugar/This website sheds light on pure cane sugar and its origin and why people use it.

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