Conferring to CSIRO andThe Bureau of Meteorology, the worldwide mediocre value of sea temperatures andheat content remains increasing to a degree upon a minimum of two thousand metersbelow the surface as showed in Figure 1.
The sea level has upsurge further thantwenty centimeters since late 1900s due to ocean warming therefore causing theland ice to melt hence affecting the volume of water deposited on land. The averageheat content and ocean temperatures was warmed through the climate in Australiais approximately 1 oC since 1910. The recurrence, intensity andlength of overwhelming heat occasions has been expanded in extreme fire climateand season throughout cosmic regions of Australia in crosswise since the 1970s (Bom.
gov.au, 2017). Based on State of theClimate report in 2014, the number of records concerning overwhelming warmth inAustralia has dwarfed outrageous cool records by 3 to 1 for daytime with extremetemperatures hence about 5 to 1 during evening with least temperatures since2001. During 1951 to 1980, warm months frequently occurs slightly above than 2percent. However, it befalls nearly 7 percent from 1981 to 2010 hence 10percent in recent years.
During that time interval, the recurrence of exceedinglycool months has dropped by over a third since the prior epoch. Figure 2 showsthe variations in the recurrence of temperature extremes that appears to be directlyidentified with warming patterns (Climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au, 2016). Duringthe Australian summer in 2012-2013, extreme warmth was encountered.
Fitting to the datarecorded in Bathurst throughout summer from mean 1960-1990 and mean 2000, thereis an upturn about 0.5 oC in minimum and 2 oC in maximum temperaturevalue. After 2000, approximately 14 out of 17 peaks (82.4%) are more than the 1960-1990maximum mean value hence roughly 11 out of 17 peaks (64.7 %) are more than theminimum mean value. Year 2017 was considered the warmest summer year with arange of 16.0 oC to 32.6 oC since 1960s whilst thecoldest summer was in 1965 where the temperature range was within 10.
2 oCto 27.4 oC. Furthermore, during summer at Sydney Airport, there isan increase about 1.3 oC in minimum temperature value and 0.9 oCin maximum from mean 1960-1990 to mean 2000 period. After 2000, all 17 out of 17peaks (100%) values are higher than the 1960-1990 for both maximum and minimum meanvalue.
The coldest summer was in 1965 where the temperature range was within16.3 oC to 23.9 oC while 2017 was still considered thewarmest summer year with the range of 21.2 oC to 30.1 oCsince 1960s. Thedata for winter was also collected for Bathurst and Sydney Airport. In Bathurst, there is an increase about 0.
5 oCin minimum temperature value and 1.5 oC in maximum temperature valuefrom mean 1960 -1990 and mean 2000 period. After 2000, there is 15 out of 17 peaks(88.2%) which is more than the 1960-1990 mean value for maximum whereas forminimum, there is 11 out of 17 peaks (64.7%) more than the mean value. Thewarmest summer was in 2013, 0.
8 oC to 13.8 oC. Thecoldest summer was in 2017 where the temperature range was within -2.4 oCto 13.8 oC. In Sydney Airport, there is an increase about 1.
9 oCin minimum and 0.6 oC in maximum temperature value from mean1960-1990 and mean 2000 period. After 2000, there is 14 out of 17 peaks (82.4%)which is more than the 1960-1990 mean value for maximum and for minimum, all 17out of 17 peaks (100%) are more than the mean value. The warmest winter was in2013, 9.4 oC to 19.6 oC.
The coldest winter was in 1965where the temperature range was within 4.3 oC to 17.9 oC. From Figure 3 and 4, wecan conclude that the trend displays that the graph is increasing as there aremore peaks above the trendline than below for both the graphs.
The trendline issimilarly increasing for figure 5 and 6 where Bathurst has higher variabilityhence higher range in summer and winter compared to Sydney Airport. In conclusion, Australiantemperatures are expected to remain increasing with more extremely hot days andlesser cool days. In southern and eastern Australia, the number of days withclimate encouraging for flame is predicted to rise. Formerly and current ozonedepleting substance discharges mean resulting in further warming of seatemperatures where sea-level ascent and fermentation across Australia are expectedto ensue.
Question 2 There arenumerous climate elements that can be considered besides temperature. Forinstance, elevation or altitude affects climate. As altitude rises, airpressure and air temperature decrease. The air becomes less compact and airparticles are more spread out at higher altitudes. Therefore, the particles areleast likely to collide with one another.
The coastal zone will have a seaatmosphere however the inland zone on the leeward side will have a mainlandatmosphere (Foundation, 2012). Bathurst has a higher elevation than SydneyAirport. Bathurst is further away from the coastal unlike Sydney Airport. Thus,Bathurst is colder than Sydney Airport. Besides that, topography of a particular area can impact our climate.Mountains and hills are known as barriers that amend wind and precipitationpatterns. Air that rises are cool and the water vapor in it is involuntary tocondense, depositing rain or snow on the windward slopes.
This causes orogeniceffect on their protected side and very less moisture appears in the air. Thecoastal range tolerates for some condensation and light precipitation comparedto inland range (Media, 2017). Therefore, topography is another reason for whyBathurst is colder than Sydney Airport. Moreover, surface area also influences in environmental changes. Themeasure of daylight that is ingested or reflected by the surface decides howmuch air warming happens. Darker regions, for example, vigorously vegetateddistricts, have a tendency to be great safeguards; lighter regions, forexample, snow and ice-secured locales, have a tendency to be excellentreflectors (Media, 2017). Sydney Airport is linked by more urban landscapecompared to Bathurst.
Therefore, Sydney Airport contributes more heat to theenvironment than Bathurst.