Chinese and western cultural differencesreflected in many aspects: first, integrity and individuality difference.Oriental countries emphasizeholistic and integrated, while westerners pay attention to individuality. Suchas traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, Chinese medicineemphasizes the whole, western medicine is different, from the point of view ofanatomy, it attaches great importance to the whole of the local. Differencebetween the overall thinking and individual thinking but also in the dailyconversation, such as in many reports, a Chinese to westerners eat at home,when the host asked today When eating Chinese food or western food, the guestvery politely said: “whateverAB1 .” Inthe west to understand such a reply, they said as soon as the word have aheadache, don’t know how to repair. Our deep thinking mode, considered with themain of manners, is respect for the host, but westerners don’t think so, thisis the difference.
Conversely, Europeans who come to China, you ask him whatthey’re going to do today, he must not say “casual,” will make clearhis wish. Second, the differences between the western andChinese speech. In China, to people’s health care is educated, politeperformance. But for westerners expressed concern about the health, cannot accordingto the traditional Chinese way. A Chinese student learned that their Americanteachers sick, will concern to say “you should go to see a doctor.” And behold,the words of caring makes the teacher is not happy.
AB2 Because itseems to the teacher, see a doctor unhealthily such simple things even a childknows, don’t need anyone to teach. If to some small matter may give advice, itis clearly on its ability to doubt, thereby significantly hurt theirself-esteem. The hospitality of Chinese people at the table by westerners oftenmisunderstood as uncivilized behavior. For westerners think: guests eat eatless completely is decided by yourself, don’t have to master to add wine andfood for him, and overeating is highly respectable, so guests to dinner, afterowner don’t have to persuade him to eat. A American guests see China masteruneasy constantly give him food, he later complained that “master treatsme like a pig.” Chinese people get between acquaintances, often withimpunity said: “oh, man, you recently fat again!” Or concern said:”man, you are thin, pay attention to the body!” If westerners hearyou say “you are fat” or “you are so thin, even if the familiarwith, can also feel awkward and difficult to answer.Third, the difference between values andmoral standards. Westerners worship individual struggle, especially forpersonal achievements of the proud, never hide their self-confidence, sense ofhonor and the ecstasy of after achievement.
On the contrary, Chinese cultureshow not advocating personal honor, but advocate modest. Chinese people opposeto boast, but the Chinese self modest or self denial is often make westerners.”Your English is very good,” “No, No, my English is verypoor”; “You ‘ve done a very good job,” “No, I don’ t thinkso. It ‘s the result of be efforts.” this modest, in western opinion, notonly denied himself, also denies praise your taste. The Chinese modesty incapitalist competition market is it won’t work.
In addition, westernersself-centeredness and independent consciousness very strong, mainly displaysin: (1) is responsible for himself. In the law of the jungle society, everyoneliving style and quality of life depends on their abilities, therefore,everyone must self-made, put personal interests in the first place. (2) not accustomedto care about others, helping others, don’t ask other people’s things.AB3 (3) is due to theabove two points, take the initiative to help others or accept others help inthe west is often the embarrassing thing. AB4 Because accepthelp can prove himself incompetent, and take the initiative to help others isconsidered meddle in other people’s private affairs. The Chinese code ofconduct is “I to others, whether useful for society,” the value ofthe individual is manifested in the dedication. Chinese culture praise highly anoble sentiment, selfless dedication. In China, active care about others, givea person with meticulous consideration is a virtue, therefore, the Chinesegreat events and bagatelle of whether others, family affairs are ready to take theinitiative to care about, and that in the west would be considered”meddling.
“Western culture encourages people to blaze new trails, todo something nobody has done and distinguished extraordinary career. While thetraditional Chinese culture requires people to follow the middle-ground, Chinesepeople are good at the future risk, more willing to maintain the status quoAB5 , maintainharmony. Westerners cherish personal freedom, like follow one’s inclinations,only to walk alone, would not restricted. Chinese culture is more emphasis oncollectivism, advocate personal interest obedience collective interests, sharethe joys and sorrows, unity and cooperation, moving in tandem.
Fourth, thedifference of social relations. Westerners equality consciousness strong, richor poor, everyone will respect themselves and don’t allow infringed upon theirrights. At the same time, everyone can fully respect others. In the UnitedStates, few people are proud of their eminent family background, also fewpeople ashamed of his poor background, because they all know, as long as theirefforts, is sure to succeed. As the popular proverb says: “If workinghard, even a cowboy can be President.” new China has been established fornearly 60 years, but the traditional manner, parent-child hierarchical remainsentrenched in the minds of the Chinese people. Father in the eyes of his son,the teacher has absolute authority in the eyes of students, in the person’sfamily background, still plays an important role in the growth.
American familystructure is simple: parents and minor children, called the nuclear family.Once children get married, have to move out, must also be financiallyindependent. Parents no longer have an obligation to support their children.This approach provides maximum freedom for young people, and cultivate theirability to live independently, but also alienates the relationship between therelatives. Chinese family structure is more complex, the traditional happyfamily is four generations. In such a family, the old man to help look afterchildren, grandchildren grew up to help support the old man, between familymembers depend on each other, help each other, close relationships. However,this lifestyle is not conducive to cultivating the independent ability of youngpeople.Five, the differences between the socialetiquette.
Meet the Chinese like to ask each other name, age, unit and income,etc. Westerners hate somebody else asked about private things such as age andincome. In Chinese the acquaintances always greet a way: “have ameal?” “Where to?” And so on.
In our opinion this is a politegreeting, and if you greet with westerners such “on had your meal?””Where you going?” They will think you would like to invite him todinner or interference in his private affairs, will cause misunderstanding.Westerners meet, usually called a way: “Hello!” “How do youdo!” “Nice day, isn ‘t it?” For other people’s praise, theChinese usually say modest, and westerners are always pleased to answer “thankyou” to accept it. The occasion of the Chinese with “thank you”is less, especially not between very close friends and family members used tosay “thank you.” Westerners hang “thank you” in the mouthall day long, even between close friends and family members are often so.
Chinese people often put aside when receive gifts, look at, so that others saidgreed. When westerners receive gifts should immediately open in front of theguest and even claimed that good. Over and over again the Chinese hospitality,cups of wine, food, guests don’t eat not, don’t drink also not line, thatwesterners find it difficult to deal with. Westerners habit is: Help yourself?please! In Chinese, the host and the guest often said:”good-bye!” “Be careful!” “Goodbye, go!””You come in!” “Please stay”, etc. Westerners only say:”Bye Bye!” “See you next time!” “Good night!”Six, the differences between the social customs.American women and Chinese women’s status is not high, but American women hadthe opportunity to can enjoy the knight of many traditional customs andetiquette in American society respect women can be seen everywhereAB6 : men open doors for ladies.
Ms helped out of thecar; In the street, men walk outside, the woman walked inside, to provideprotection to ms; Ms into the restaurant, all of the men have to stand up;Table, men want to pull the chair for ladies, such as ladies standing a goodposition again back to the woman behind the chair, she sat down, please.Chinese society for women to take care of and etiquette seems to be a bit less,and there are some experts note that belt beside the word “?” in Chinese characters havequite a few contain derogatory sense, such as “???????”. And westerners view of marriage and marriage of the Chinesepeople is very different. Because they think: marriage is a personal affair, noone can interfere; Marriage does not belong to moral issues at the same time.One has the right to choose and to his/her favorite people live together, oncefound that the existing marriage was a mistake, he/she have a choice for asecond time. If the couple fell in love with a third party, either party willnot to blame. In their view: forced two people who love each other livetogether is cruel.
The Chinese marriage is relatively stable. This is becausethe Chinese people treat marriage as a top priority in life, everyone istreated with caution, choose seriously, once decided, will not change easily.And the Chinese always regard marriage as a serious moral problems, cast orthird party involvement is considered highly unethical.To sum up, the cultural differences between Chineseand western’s expressed in many ways, but simple to generalize is notcomplicated: reflected in the way of thinking is the difference between theabstract and concrete, which are reflected in the attitude to life seems to bemore practical, can be understood as westerners Chinese much more heavily onsome mental feelings.Like Chinese card, literal translation is the accesscard, in the French in French translation for aircraft and aircraft carrierships, etc., from the word creation point of view of practical use. Chinese andwestern culture have many differences, there are many differences, many ofthose customs also generates a lot of jokes. Similarities in differentcultures, however, is that these are human culture development course, thesecultural differences can’t say who actor who is bad, this is the objectiveform, their presence will cause the continued development of human culture, intoday’s world, no nation and country may lose or get rid of their owntraditional culture.
Most people see the eastern and western culturaldifferences, so, where’s the east and west cultural similarities?First is the music aspects. About the origin of thehuman society music can be traced back to very old age of universe. When notproduce human language, has been known to use voice high and low, strong orweak, etc to express your meaning and feelings.
With the development of humanlabor, gradually produced a unified labor rhythm cell and mutual information ofshout, this is the most primitive music shape; When people celebrate theharvest and share the achievements of labor, often hit the stone, wood toexpress joy, the joy of love, this is the prototype of the original instrument.Fiddle with the pipa, for example, they have great similarities in both thephysical, and has strong penetrating power on sound point treble of bright andrich rigidity, register in soft and have sound, bass area quality stable. Pipais a long history in our country the main plucked strings, bass also has theimportant status in western music.Second, the diet aspect, they are all in order tofill the stomach, for the purpose of and focus on the taste, taste. Besides?now advocate of green food, thefirst of its safety and health, are now in urgent need of health and hygiene,taste of food.
Finally, China and the west also have similar taste, class, suchas luxury goods.Third is about holiday. In the traditional Chinesevalentine’s day is every year the lunar July 7, the legendary cowherd and vegato meet.Western valentine’s day is February 14 every year,along with the progress of The Times, the valentine’s day by east westpopularity among young people.Rose, chocolate, apple, red wine and a couplepackages have become the valentine’s day to express the best gift. Becausevalentine’s day in the warm welcome the broad masses of young people,therefore, both the east and the west, valentine’s day has become all stores,boutiques, gift shop, restaurant, bar and film festival. Four, religious mythsare between the east and the west in ancient times human beings.
As one of theorigins of folk literature, evidence that the working people is the creator ofthe spiritual civilization, never produce all is closely related with people’slife and history. The essence of the myths are with imagination and with theaid of imagination to conquer the forces of nature, control the forces ofnature, the forces of nature are shaped like; Has Chinese and western mythologyis through people’s fantasies in an unconscious way of artistic processed formof nature and society itself, it also reflects the people’s suffering on theeast and the west on the gods of the common points. Religion has been widelyused to maintain class rule between east and west. In the eastern civilization,Buddhism and Taoism has a great influence on people. Buddha Buddha,bodhisattva, the jade emperor is the main people worship gods. Various dynastyrulers use the thought of Buddhism to rule the people, make people obey thewill of ruler, to maintain the class interests of this class. At that time,Buddhism stability and made great contributions to the society.
While in thewest, the main religion is Islam and Christianity. Jesus, god is the maincharacter of the people’s faith in the west. Religion reflects the people ofgod and the study of ultimate concern of ethical value.
The law of the universe is the origin and, since theancient times, people called the cause of the universe, god, god day, or thecreator.In ancient times, Chinese people believe there is acreator or supreme god, shang dynasty and the shang dynasty people call it god,before the zhou dynasty people call day, people use Lao zi and zhuang zhou tonamed it. Although names are different, but the same creator who. Most peopleadmit and people are guilty, and separated from the creator of the eternal.People want to get rid of their sin and will suffer retribution for sin.Religion is also to maintain national stability and social harmony of one ofthe measures. It reflected the religion as a kind of spiritual beliefs, deeplyrooted in people’s social ideas, and a social force to be reckoned with.
Boththe east and west side, believers because of their faith intercommunity andform the relatively independent social group, and play their own use. Thisgroup is sometimes a part of the national people or more part of the nationalpeople, sometimes it is the whole nation, sometimes it is a country or severalcountries. Religion is the believers mobilize or key factors together. East andwest of the feudal rulers will not ignore the role of religion, not to seereligion as a social force to the interests of the rule of positive or negativeimpact. Therefore, east and west make full use of religion to this order allthe interests as feudal rulers common policy choices.Last, think ill in ancient Chinese tradition is theresult of the devil’s work, even if really sick, also cannot say”disease” word. From a patient’s own perspective, people do not wantto suffer the pain; From the aspects of consideration for others, for thepatient the truth will increase their sadness and worry. Usually use”Clinton”, uncomfortable, “” look”, “insteadof” disease “, the disease “illness change little, ailmentwithout”.
When westerners talk about disease, also is taboo, multi-purpose”haveatrouble” diseases. It comes to “disabled”, people aremore careful, because a group of disabled people in the society can not beneglected, is, due to their physical and psychological harm, their self-esteemis very strong, and very sensitive. Use “not flexible legs” inChinese, a bit not make “ears”, couldn’t make the “eyes”,because in some occasions what others’ physical defect, will definitely beslapped someone, throw the scars.
In order to reduce the harm of the disabled,life often use the euphemism expression mentioned in the article. That Englishand Chinese are identical, such as “imperfecthearing” said”deaf” “inconvenient” said “dis – abled”,”special” said “mentalretardation”.Although there are many differences between Chinese and westernculture in values and folk customs, there is a special similarity in the use ofsome euphemism. “Death”, for example, no matter any country andnation, anyone, no matter what his position that flatters, geometry, incomelevel, old or young, have a strong fear for “death”.”Death” is a terrible thing in the east and the west, and peoplealways try to avoid it when it comes to the word. Superstitious people ageseventy-three and seventy-three are the two “level”, so many reachedthe age of the two old people are not willing to disclose their actual age, areusually more or less said one year old, in order to avoid the two as related todeath. The majority of people in english-speaking countries believe inChristianity, and religious monism has a greater influence on euphemism.
“Death” is a kind of mysterious and taboo things, people can notexplain the mystery of “death” and terrible, and turned to religion,many in the west is related to “death” euphemism comes from the bible.In the book of genesis, the book of genesis mentions that god created humanbeings with the earth, and that human beings are created equal, and hence”toreturntotheearth” after death. A considerable number of christiansbelieve in “original sin”, in which death means “paying off thedebt” and taking the ledgers to god to “sell off”.
Only thosewho are doing good deeds in life can “enter the kingdom of heaven”and “be with god”, while those who do evil and do evil can only”go to hell” and accept the punishment of eternity. One of the mostinfluential religions in China is Buddhism, although Buddhism originated inIndia, but since the tang dynasty, Buddhism has influenced China as much asnative religion. The “death”, “death”, “xie shi”and other death euphemism in Chinese are all from the buddhist”samsara”. And buddhists believe in reincarnation. Only by convertingto the buddhist gate can you get rid of the endless troubles and hardships.Only by reading the buddhist scriptures and practicing the practice can youmake a positive fruit. Therefore, the buddhist also called “death”,”silence”, “sit”, “silence” and so on.
Taoism,which originated in our country, believes that man is part of nature and seeksimmortality through the use of the making of Dan medicine to achieveimmortality and physical immortality. It is believed that human death is”feather”, “death”, “go to the west”, “driveback to the jade pool” and so on.