CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONEducation and Philosophy are closely inter-related. Philosophy is the cornerstone of the foundation of the education. John Dewey (1859-1952) established a theory of education that required justification and explanation.
This theory of learning was involved to a strategy of teaching and, most importantly, his personal philosophy. “Dewey turned pragmatism into a social, rather than an individual, philosophy” (Tanner, 1997) Dewey was a writer, professor, theorist, and philosopher whose ideas have had an impact on community and modern education throughout the twentieth century, particularly in the USA. He is mostly recognized and known as the pragmatist educationalist of that century (Field, 2007). He highlighted that the nature of wisdom, understanding, and intelligence is fundamentally moral. In pragmatic view the function of education is to bring about certain changes in the behaviour of the individual.
According to (FEFFER, 1993). Dewey introduced a new element into James’s theory agreeing with that evolution select actions, not ideas or feeling, he interpreted activity in entirely different manner Ideas and act as an incentive it change the behaviour. These changes relate to the Physical, intellectual, and the moral development of the human beings. Globalization put this World in war of Technology and technology developed at the practical based and construct-based education.
Dewey in many respects as one of the most important ancestors of present-day constructivism and regards Dewey and pragmatism as one of its most important discussion cohorts in present-day discussions about pragmatism and constructivism in philosophy and education (Neubert, 2010). John Dewey (1859-1952) becomes its leading and most influential promoter. He practiced it in his laboratory school set up in Chicago in 1896. His purpose was to train pupils in co-operation and mutually useful living. According to (Miller, 2001) ” Dewey school was the regular meeting of the Teacher the point was to explore ways to teach to the goal of open-ended growth, critical questioning, and the kind of participant membership a democracy”.
He wrote on subjects such as philosophy, religion, politics, and art. He provided his nation a philosophy through which its citizens may exercise a more knowledgeable path in their lives for educational scholastic history. Dewey introduced such educational practice-based process to adopting it student become an active member of the Society. According to (Leonard J. Waks, 2017) John Dewey’s Democracy and Education is the benchmark for a great deal of contemporary educational theory. It covers a extensive range of themes and issues concerning to education, comprising teaching, learning, educational settings, subject matter, values, and the nature of work and play. They reflect the growth of the individual, as the process of education goes on and the individual continues growing physically, mentally, and morally. Since this process starts from birth and continues throughout life.
Education is broadly conceived as a life-long process. Educational aims are not at the end of process of education. They are rather within the process and as the individual go on achieving some educational objectives. Pragmatism stresses experience based curriculum (activity based curriculum).In pragmatism, there is no place for rewards and punishments. It stresses social discipline.
Pragmatism believes that discipline comes through purposive and cooperative activities. According to John Dewey, discipline is the proper use of one’s energy and power. It advocates self-discipline. Activity is the central point in the whole educative process.
In all creative learning two agencies are evolved-the educator and educing. No real learning is conceived without the co-operation between the two to achieve their common purposes and goals. Co-operation of the two in pursuing an activity gives rise to the process of education. Action is the primordial; unless there is any action, there is no thinking. Real education is not mere imparting of bookish information; real education means pled up in many continues experience or activities. The basis of all teaching is the activity of the child.
Pragmatism mainly focus on problem solving and ‘how to’ knowledge of things. Analysis of problems and seeking solution is important. They focus mainly on skillset rather on the presentation of curriculum. Manual and practical arts, Problem solving, Living skills, Language arts. Human problems, Citizenship, and Consumer skills.
The pragmatist teacher is a fellow participant, experiences student, guide and facilitator of the learning process. They are considered model problem solvers and appropriate users of scientific method (Gutek, 2009, p. 77). Real knowledge can be gained only be activity, experiments and real life experience. Thus in order to develop the child fully that he should be provided opportunities to participate more in activities and experiments so that he creates his own values and lead better, richer and happiest life. In the words of Dewey “Education is the social continuity of life”.
To pragmatist education is life itself and not preparation for life. For pragmatists educational process has no end beyond itself. In addition to the individual it is continuous, reorganising, reconstructing and integrating the experiences and the activities of the race (Beauvoir). Education is the birth right of each individual, so the state should shoulder the responsibility.
There is no place for spirit or essence. Humanities and cultural activities find no place in the pragmatic scheme of education. It ignores the past as well as the experience of the past. It lays emphasis on the present and the future. It does not provide regular and systematic instructions. Being a practical and utilitarian school of philosophy, pragmatism has influenced education to the maximum extent (soraj, 2013). The theoretical framework for this study is based on the pragmatist philosophical approach.
According to this perspective, ‘truth’ is a “tentative assertion based on human experience” (Gutek, 2009, p. 74), and it challenged “traditional philosophical assumptions that a completed and perfect universe could be approached. It is necessary, according to Dewey, that the classroom teacher has the mental propensity to overcome the demand and stressors placed on her because the students can sense when their teacher is not genuinely invested in encouraging their learning (Talbi, 2015).Purpose of this Current StudyThe purpose of this study is to examine the awareness of Higher Secondary School teachers of District Lahore about Pragmatism and John Dewey’s Educational Philosophy. Secondly to see is there implementation pragmatic and John Dewey’s Philosophical though in Public Higher Secondary Schools of District Lahore. Statement of the Problem In current situation of public school of Lahore there is not one significant philosophy adopted to promote the practical learning in our schools.
The school of Pakistan are known as the slow contributors in producing general domestic production cause is memory based-education and not focus on productive education. Teaching approach also considered passive and instructional based only. Teachers’ even of higher level ignored the construct-based teaching approach in their academic activities. In this study extent of teachers awareness about practice-based education will help full to conclude the implementation of teaching approach. As pragmatism and John Dewey’s educational approach is based on learning by doing and practice based education and such education are being strongly adopted in this modern age. It is extremely need that education should be productive and progressive for survive of any Nation.
This study will be helpful in paving the path for practical education. Dewey believed that object of knowledge are created by process of knowing. Further he argued that reality is created by human knowing knowledge is the only relationship Dewey’s contributions in education and it is essential to come back to his work firstly to promote practical education to highlight and improve human capabilities. It is possible to study Dewey’s contributions and it is crucial to revisit his work in order to strong understanding. In public schools, there is lack of learning by doing or lack of child preference. The function of Dewey’s work has been known as fundamental pathway to promote an individual not only but also increase the positive social productivity. The views on education may possibly be very relevant to contemporary questions about schooling and education. Therefore, the problem that this study addresses is the fact that there has been little research on the implementation of John Dewey’s educational philosophical thought in public schools of Lahore.
Accordingly, in order to implement the pragmatic educational approach in the public educational system, this study provides insight into possible teaching thought in education. These thoughts and methods provide students with opportunities to take ownership over their learning. Objective of the Study 1. To examined the awareness of SS (subject specialist) and SSS (senior school teacher) about John Dewey’ practical-based, problem-solving and learning by experience. 2. To find out the extent of implementation of philosophical educational thought of John Dewey in public higher secondary schools of Lahore.Research QuestionsThis study addresses the following research questions:1.
To what degree do public Higher Secondary schools of Lahore teachers believe that the philosophy of John Dewey is implemented in public schools?2. Is there any significant statistical difference between male and female teachers’ responses in terms of their gender and teaching experience? The Significance The earlier studies, mostly represented European schools and not representing the developing countries especially like Pakistan. As this Era is globalizing and academic achievements are being consider to eliminate the poverty of this world so there is extremely need to introduce imperial methods in school to reduce disabilities of memory-based education. The current study about Dewey provides information to educators in public schools of Lahore, in particular.
This study also builds valuable bridges between the ideas of John Dewey and teachers’ of public schools of Lahore. On one hand, this paper helps international educators understand the degree to which this pragmatic philosophy is implemented in public schools of Lahore. As John Dewey talked a lot about education, democracy, and the interrelations between these concepts. This study boosts public teachers to learn more about this philosophy and John Dewey’s ideas about learning by doing. Assumption of the StudyIt was supposed to carry out the study that participants give their opinion on an instrument without any bias.
Delimitation of the StudyTotal 25 Public Higher secondary schools male and female of Lahore was taken as papulation. Ø Private Schools are not included in this study. Ø Rural and Urban areas were not taken separately both were included in general in this studyØ Male and female higher secondary schools included in this Study equally. Procedure of the StudyConceptual Framework of this Study CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF LITERATURE John Dewey is one of the most believable theorists in the history of modern educational theory (Gouinlock, 2017).
He served as a major stimulus for serval allied philosophical movement that designed the thought development of 20th century, including empiricism, naturalism, conceptualism and humanism. The main theme under Dewey’s philosophy was his belief that a democratic society of informed and engaged inquirers was the best means of promoting human interests (Talebi, 2015). Dewey emerges from this debate with a “pre-curricular” view of education for young children and with powerful arguments for continuity between informal and formal education. In this pre-curricular view, education starts with everyday concrete life experiences.
Dewey has developed one of the most powerful and sophisticated “practical epistemologies” available in Western philosophy (Biesta, 2007). John Dewey is reflected not only as one of the founders of pragmatism, but also as an educational classic whose approaches to education and learning still exercise great influence on current discourses and practices worldwide (Garrison, 2012). Dewey focused student-center and practical based-education where student should let their choices.
He argued growth can happen in an undesirable direction (Wicipedia, 2014). John Dewey is nothing less than a tower of strength star of modern education. His ideas and methods to schooling were revolutionary ideas during his lifetime and remain fundamentally important to modern schooling today.
For Dewey, a democratic society must be transportable and dynamic; it is a society in which teachers know that what works for one student might not work for another. He believed that experience is not an emotional state. For Dewey, a democratic society is not one that makes provisions for equal participation in its good for all its members. Dewey was a curious visionary because he did not speak about long-term goals or cities not built with hands. He was a visionary about the present and the potential of the modern world, modern society, and modern man (Abdullhakeem, et al 2014).In Dewey’s word s “Every child has the ability to learn complex subjects and I was able to see that philosophy in action when I analyzed the mathematical abilities of kindergarteners in the Chicago Public School (CPS) system” (ROSEVELT, 2015).
Dewey’s contribution in problem-solving education is a fundamental practicable process. According to Martin He was able to show how educative experience can be improved by teaching student how to engage meaning fully in problem-solving activities (Rich, 2010). According to (Burke-Walsh, 1996b). The child-centered method, which is shared by the three educational models, put in front individualization as a basic principle in the society of teaching and school life. It means respect for the exclusivity of each student and creating conditions for their optimal and general development. Dewey’s thoughts are strongly helpful and appropriate for this new Era. This Era is Era of Globalization which has changed the shape of education by marketization of education, as the increase in digital technologies facilitating connections between teachers and students.
These and other issues present us with new challenges to how we think about education. The contributors to this special issue attempt in various ways to make sense of how Dewey would have interpreted and responded to the phenomenon of globalization (English, 2016).