Chapter proper means of preservation. With the invention



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Man’s pursuit for knowledge has led to the
formation and accumulation of remarkable amount of information. This pursuit
for knowledge knows no parameters and limits and is never satisfied. It has
continued since the birth of civilization to the modern age. This hard-earned
knowledge and information is treasured for the entire mankind and therefore
accountable to be well-kept. With the discovery of paper man has been able to
express this knowledge to others by writing books. Thousands of manuscripts
have been written by the wise men of the previous times but many of them were
ruined due to the lack of proper means of preservation. With the invention of
printing press, it became easier to preserve the knowledge in the form of
printed documents. This steered to the generation of a large number of books.
The need for the preservation and distribution of information led to the
creation of more and more libraries.

Over the years, many libraries have supported
education efforts by providing teaching resources, information and referral
services. A more active method has been taken by libraries proposing
educational classes or one-to-one tutoring programs. Many libraries have
outreach programs intended to meet the needs of specific groups of people with
limited educational skills. 

interchange is usually between two or more associations involving a momentary
exchange of resources, while an exchange will comprise cooperation on a wider
scale, to contain exchange of all kinds of materials, exchange of information
(for both staff and reader inquiries), user access to participating libraries,
sharing of bibliographic catalogs, union lists, and other bibliographic utilities,
and cooperative training programs of personnel of participating libraries.

cooperation states to a mutually beneficial sharing of resources established by
two or more libraries, or, it may be an umbrella term for a wide scale of
cooperation procedures and instruments for libraries.

According to Agbo (2013), from time immemorial, both terms ‘knowledge
and information’, which are central to the topic of our seminar today have
remained the ‘stock in trade’ or better still, the ‘articles of trade’ in
libraries and librarianship. From its earliest, humble beginning, libraries
have, till today, been closely associated with and thus closely related to both
concepts. Hence, knowledge and information have remained the familiar ‘focus of
interest’ of libraries and librarianship thus giving rise to the term knowledge
society which has

become a household term these days.
an identified statement that no library even those in first world countries
could claim comprehensiveness in their collection and this is more so for
libraries in a developing country like the Philippines. Though the yearning to
provide our clienteles with materials for their research needs regardless of a
limited budget has always been the major stimulus that led librarians into
means that could supplement whatever collection they have in their own library.
And so consortium was introduced. Consortia have been in the Philippines even
in the early 1930’s though it was termed differently but the idea was one and
the same, as it is understood in the present year.

purposes of libraries have been changing over times becoming more faceted and
multifarious. This modern concept of the library makes it defy the definition
given to it in the earlier times. Libraries are not institutions/building/warehouses/stores
etc. of materials, but are agents of educational, social, economic and
political changes or revolutions in the community and their doors are now open
to all who need them. Leheman (2011)

is now the widespread mode that carries together librarians and libraries for
activities and objectives that cannot be as successfully undertaken
individually. It may be called a “consortium,” a “network,” an “association,”
or a “virtual Library.” It may be informal, formal, or government-sponsored. In
the Philippines it all started as informal organization of cooperating
libraries with a simple purpose of interlibrary lending. As time passes by it
developed and led to the first consortium, the Inter-Institutional Consortium
which was established in 1972.The original members are De La Salle
University-Manila, St. Scholastic’s College, St. Paul College-Manila,
Philippine Christian University, and Philippine Normal University.

        A government-sponsored consortium, on
the other hand, is one that has a prescribed purpose (usually imposed by the
sponsoring government agency), with a geographical coverage, government
funding, government oversight, and permanent staff. The DOST-ESEP Consortium is
an excellent example.

        Today, the willingness and commitment to
cooperate are still measured by the proactive responses of our model consortia
libraries engaged in traditional library borrowing and lending to the issues
and concerns in expediting their ILL (Inter-Library Loan) and DDS (Document
Delivery Services) services. A few of these cooperating institutions also
provide direct borrowing on-site for faculty and students, such as IIC (India
International Centre), IUC (Inter University Center) , and CCAL (Cagayan de Oro
Cooperating Academic Libraries). Because libraries are now able to have a
direct link to the online catalogs of the other libraries, users can easily
identify the location of desired


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