CHAPTER1THEPROBLEM AND ITS SETTINGIntroduction Students play a crucial role in the society. They serveas the foundation of the future generations.
A student’s main purpose is tostudy and acquire information to contribute to self-growth and be able to shareknowledge to others. Other than home, the easiest way to learn is going toschool. Schools are institutions made specifically for learning. Memoryretention is very essential in learning especially in situations when you haveto recall a specific lesson for recitation or the homework that the teachergave before leaving the school premises. Inthe past, where there’s little or almost no modes of transportation available,students walk their way to their respective schools even if it’s miles away.But thanks to the innovative emergence of alternative means, different modes oftransportation are now accessible to everyone, especially students. Astime flies, more and more vehicles (both private and public) now occupy thestreets of the Philippines, specifically in Manila. CNN Philippines (2015)reported Manila topping the longest minute spent in commuting survey conductedby a GPS-based navigation app called Waze and named it as a city that has the”worst traffic on Earth”.
This issue does not only apply to the workers but forthe students also who commute on a regular basis to go to their respectiveschools or universities. Notonly does traffic and other modes of transportation hindrances can affectstudent’s academic performance, this study seek to find out if there is arelationship between the respondent’s home distance and memory retention.TheoreticalFramework Several theories have been used to understand how thememory functions. As well as how these people affects physically andemotionally because several phenomena.Theoryon How Memory FunctionsScientists don’t entirely grasp howthe memory organizes. They can’t predict what occurs while recalling a memory. Thebrain’s organization and storage of memories have been an infinite journey forcognitive researchers for decades but have enough theories to formulateeducated guesses regarding the subject.According to Mohs (2007), the processof memory starts with encoding, then progress its way to storage and finally,retrieval.
Formation of memory begins specifically through sensory andperception, and requires paying attention. Itwill be then stored in short term memory which is known to have smallcapacities. Essential learning may be transported to long term memory,especially when used frequently. Long term memory is known to store unlimitedmemories that make it easier to recall when needed. Experts find difficulty in identifyingthe difference between true forgetting and failed retrieval of specificinformation stored in the long term memory. Theoryabout the Relationship between Short term memory and Long term memory According to Alison Preston, upgradingshort term memory to long term memory need the help of time have to beunforgettable for it to become permanent or stay longer in a person’s memory.Memories have different values.
As memories combine in the storage ofmemory it will undergo changes, the longer memories are, the more it becomesblurry. But if one event have other connections to newer memories, there is apossibility that these memories will stay longer and still become intact insidethe memory storage. The process of transferring short termto long term memory and spreading information through the neurons depends onthe hippocampus (Preston, 2007). The movement of neurons is responsible forfiltering the memories being pushed inside the memory storage. If the neuroncan communicate with another neuron, then there is a possible way for thememory to have the unforgettable factor and become long term after being in theshort term area.
Having the same information on memory to another memory canhelp recalling the other one. As time passes, the systems supporting the cellswill become brittle. A person may remember a particular memory but not as clearas before. To prove this idea, Preston set oldpeople who developed dementia or Alzheimer’s disease as an example of memoriesfading away through time. There are many ways to prevent this kind ofsituations. One important way is to have a good amount of sleep, water andexercise.
Drinking supplements like vitamins to strengthen memory can alsohelp. Having a good and healthy lifestyle can affect the cells inside aperson’s brain to function well and be able to restore more memories.Theory of Forgetting Whydo people forget their past memories? Many studies are conducted regarding thistopic and different theories have been made such as fading caused by time andthe other is that the memory somehow failed to be retrieved. Experts developeda theory about forgetting short and long term memory. The brain’s capacity finds itdifficult to grasp small details at once as suggested by the displacementtheory.
The old memories decay and replaced by the newer ones. According toMurdocks (1962) the short term memory fades due to replacement by the newerones or decays because of staying too long over a period of time. However,interference theory says that long term memory can be interfered by the othermemories so it will obliterate the original path of one particular memory.That’s why doubt sometimes occur when recalling a past memory from a long timeago. Because of this the information from the original memory will becomeedited and not have an assurance. There are two ways of interference that cancause forgetting.
One is proactive interference, where you can learn otherinformations because it will flourish other informations that is inside yourmind. The second one is the retroactive interference. Where you will fullyforgot your memory because of your current memory.
For example when you have anew phone number, you will have to memorize it, and because you have anothernumber, you will not need to remember your past number. It will be forgottenbecause you created a new one. ConceptualFramework Figure 1 presents the research paradigm of the study. Theinput variables show the demographic profile of respondents in terms of age, sex,strand and distance from school. Process covers the steps needed for analyzingdata from respondents.
Finally, the output presents the significant correlationbetween home distance and memory retention. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Demographic Profile of Respondents 1.1.Age 1.2.Sex 1.
3.Strand 1.4.Distance from School Statementof the Problem This study aims to find out thecorrelation on the effects of home distance on memory retention of Senior HighSchool Students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines.Specifically, it wants to answer thefollowing questions:1. Whatis the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the followingvariables1.1.
Age1.2. Sex1.3. Strand1.4. Distancefrom school2.
How many hours do the respondents allot fortravel from home to school3. Doeshome distance affect the respondents’ memory retentionHypothesis Theresearchers formulated a null hypothesis that there is no correlation betweenhome distance of Senior High School students of Polytechnic University of thePhilippines and memory retention.Scopeand Limitations of the Study This study is delimited to Polytechnic University of thePhilippines, Sta. Mesa Main campus only.
Through this setting, the students inSenior High School from different strands were drawn. Generalization of thestudy’s findings is limited to PUP and other schools in Manila in which thestudents have similar situations. Theother limitation is that time and funds for conducting this research werelimited. This is the reason why only one campus and only Senior High schoolstudents are involved.Significanceof the Study The results of this study may benefit the followingStudents.
Through this study, students,especially those who are obligated to provide greater time and effort in goingto school would be informed of the possible effects on memory retention oftheir home distances to schools.Teachers.The findings of thisstudy may help the teachers derive teaching strategies that will be moresuccessful and effective for the students.
It may also improve theirunderstanding on the students who have live in greater distances from school. Psychologists.As this studyinvolves cognitive aspects, specifically memory, the professionals such as thepsychologists can improve the scope of this study and provide more generalconclusions.Departmentof Transportation and Communications (DOTC).
The findings of this study may help this sect ofgovernment address transportation hindrances and derive for further developmentand improvement of overall transport systems in the country.Commuters.Through this study,commuters will be aware that home distances and travel may or may not affecttheir memory retention. Through this, they can address the possible effectseven in the middle of the traffic.
FutureResearchers. Forthose researchers in the future that will conduct a similar study to thesubject of this research, the findings will be beneficial to them as a sourceof reference and comparison of data gathered.Definitionof TermsFor a better understanding of theresearch, the following terms are provided with their operational definitions. Memory is the concept in whichinformation is perceived or encoded by the human brain and stored for laterretrieval. Retention is the ability in keeping orpreserving experiences and learning that makes a recall or recognition. Hindrance is an act of making orcausing vehicles to stop, preventing motorist to move forward.Traffic Congestion is a term thatdescribes an act being stocked in the midst of slow moving vehicles.
CHAPTER2REVIEWOF LITERATURE AND STUDIESThis chapter will show the literatureand studies from foreign and local authors that are used by the researchers forfurther understanding of the subject matter of this research.Howtraffic affect commutersIn our daily lives commuters aredealing with long traffic and other transportation hindrances. Based on LTO’s (LandTransportation Office) study, in the past few years, there’s 2,101,148registered vehicles around Metro Manila. The traffic worsens every year,compared to past years. Inquirer.
net listed some impacts of traffic oncommuters: Underperformance.Based on the Philippine Statistics Authority, half of the 37 million workers inthe Philippines take the easiest route in going to their respected companies everyday. Billions of students are also depending on public transportations.
Longerthe hours the students and workers deal with long traffic may affect their performancephysically and mentally. Unbalancedtime. People getting up earlier to prepare for work or school do not guarantee punctualitysince traffic is unpredictable, especially in times of rush hour. Overallfatigue. Having to seat hours at the bus while thinking of problems at schooland work causes stress to commuters.
With addition of pollution and heat mayresult to having over fatigue and overtiredness. Inquirer.net(2015) also suggested alternatives and tips on how commuters can protect theirhealth to prevent illnesses like drinking vitamins, exercise and balanced diet,proper sleep, using masks for protection from air pollution. Traffic has becomepart of every commuter’s lives, there is no easy way to escape from it, butthere is a way for commuters to overcome the negative effects from it by makingtheir lifestyles healthy as possible.Stressand Fatigue amidst Traffic clog Affect Your HealthDue to thunder storm that results toflood, most commuters spend hours on the road during rush hour and were caughtup by a terrible traffic clog along EDSA and its nearby roads. Considering rain or protesters conquering theroad are not the only reason for the traffic that we’ve been experiencing,above all, traffic clogs had been part of our daily life.
Moreover, accordingto Numbeo.com (2015), the Philippines placed fifth on the categories with theworse traffic in the whole world. Atraffic clog is not the only reason to cause delay on people with their labor orwith their errands but more studies shows that, being in a city with a neverchanging traffic will result in having a negative effect on your health.
Incase of other commuters who were caught in a traffic clog, some of them wereexperiencing sleep deprivation specifically to those who are forced to wake upearly in the morning to avoid rush hour and get to work on time. Basedon The Telegraph (2013) “A week with less than six hours of sleep each nightcan lead you to 711 changes in how genes work.” In additional, being sleep deprivedcan also affect the accomplishments, attention, and long-term memory. Additionally,sleep deprivation can cause anxiety, exhaustion, frustration, impulsivebehavior, lower immunity, and some mental health problems.
Furthermore, thiscan encourage to do drugs and alcohol consumption.Preventing memory fromstress This study determines that stress hasa big impact to our memory and so Dr. Klemm invented this study. According toWilliam R. Klemm Ph.D Memory Medic, It is notorious that stress can damage ourmemory. This sort of experience that many of us has been known. Academicperformances of students has becoming worse because of struggling in stress(Better Grades.
Less effort 2011) Often Experiencing stress may cause failureto our memory. Brain freezes, like Perry’s, other thoughts cannot apparent whenstress fills in our mind. Buy some of this came from the”fight or flight” response where stress triggered and the bloodstreampenetrates the adrenalin. (Memory power 101) When Adrenalin arises, itactivates the raising of heart rate and blood pressume and causes us to beafraid and anxious.
Laboratory experiments proves that the acceleration ofattentiveness has a beneficial effect on memory. And could injure our memory. There are some happenings duringstress that can drives the anterior pituitary gland’s release of ACTH, to getrid of cortisol toward the inside of bloodstream. For short, cortisol has theability to fight or prevent the stress. The white blood cells mobilizing andenhancing immune system. Lastly, if we keep on encountering stress the processof impairment will gets worst and the word cure will be impossible Effects on academic performance of schoollocation Theobjective of this study is to find out which distance affected the student’sacademic performance in Makambako Town council’s secondary schools. Mhiliwa(2015), the researcher, conducted his research in five community secondaryschools in Makambako TC.
The data used in his research was gathered involved 2educational officers, 12 teachers and 200 students (consists of 80 boys and 120girls) with the use of semi-structured interview guide, questionnaires anddocumentary review, through random purposive sampling technique. The data is determinedby using inductive analysis procedures. Then find out that the longer thedistance students travel in going to school, resulted in arriving to schoolslate and with empty stomachs.
Mhiliwa claimed that location of school has leadto mass failure to most students and some have caused dropout thus fail toattain their educational goals.Relationshipof school distance and academic achievement This study aimed to investigate the relationship betweenacademic achievement and school distance of primary school pupils. Thepopulation was comprised by all the primary schools in the said location. Astructured questionnaire served as the instrument and was established using thetest re-test method to ensure its reliability.
Using the Pearson Product MomentCorrelation (PPMC), the researchers analyzed the data gathered. The findings ofthe study revealed that there is a positive, but very low positive, relationshipbetween the academic achievement of primary school pupils in Ovia North-EastLocal Government Area and school distance. There is no significant relationshipexplained between the two variables.Longjourneys to school undermine Education “Negative impact of taking long journeys to school have affectsa student’s health and on their education achievement levels” claimed one ofthe conclusions of a recent study on absenteeism by the scientific institute ofthe German health Care insurance company AOK.
According to VBE (Verband Bildungand Erziehung) federal and national President Udo Beckmann, neither educationauthorities nor national governments examined the impact of long travel hours onthe student’s health and learning abilities in going to or from schools. Heclaimed that travelling for up to three hours per day tires a child’s body morethan in adults. Healso stated other consequential factors that affects a student physically andpsychologically like carrying a schoolbag longer, getting up earlier to go toschool and doing assignments later as well as reduction of free time necessaryfor a balanced life. Because of these reasons, students may suffer the outcomeslike exhaustion and headaches. Adultsthat are part of a working environment have dealt and experienced such symptomsand are mentally stronger than children, which are much more subject to stressand exhaustion.
Synthesis of RelatedLiterature and Studies CHAPTER3METHODOLOGYThischapter will discuss the methods of research that will be used in the study,the population, sample size, and sampling technique, and the description of therespondents. It will also discuss the research instrument that will be used intreating the data.Method of ResearchThisstudy will use the descriptive method of research because this method is themost appropriate in understanding the subject matter of the study. In otherwords, it aims to describe the respondents who participate in the study. Itbasically uses survey questionnaires as a method of gathering data needed for theresearch.
Population, Sample Size, and SamplingTechniqueTherespondents of the study are the Senior High School students of PolytechnicUniversity of the Philippines that has a population of eleven thousand, twohundred forty-four (11,244). Using Slovin’s Formula to calculate theappropriate sample size, three hundred seventy-two (372) respondents are neededto participate in the study to answer the survey questions which are preparedand arranged by the researchers. But 380 respondents are gathered to satisfythe even distribution essential in the purposive sampling used in this study.
Thesampling technique used in the study is purposive sampling. According toCrossman (2017), this sampling technique is a non-probability sample selectedbased on the objective of the research and the characteristics of thepopulation.Research InstrumentTheinstrument that used is a survey questionnaire. With the use of thisinstrument, the researcher will gather much information needed to conduct thestudy. The survey questionnaire is comprised by four (4) demographics orprofile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, strand, and distance fromschool followed by three (3) survey questionnaires validated by the researchadviser and pretested to 10-20 persons.The lastdemographic profile (distance from home) will be a multiple choice question that provides five (5) possibleanswers — 1-5km, 6-10km, 11-15km, 16-20km, and 20km ormore — and one (1) additional question if the respondent is unsureof the distance of their home to school.
Thesecond survey question needs the respondent to specify how many hours, it maybe estimated, they allot for travel in going to school. The third surveyquestion is a yes/no question followed by the fourth, which asks for specificobservations of the respondents that will help and specify the study.Data Gathering ProcedureThesurvey questionnaire approved or validated by the researchers’ adviser isdistributed to 380 respondents, which are Senior High School students ofPolytechnic University of the Philippines, through purposive sampling. Afteranswering the survey questionnaire, the researchers started the tabulation forthe analysis and interpretation from the data gathered.Statistical Treatment of DataThedata gathered from the respondents are tallied, tabulated, encoded, andinterpreted by item.
The following statistical tools will be used to treat theresponses that will be gathered.1. Frequency and Percentage. This will beused to determine the percentage rate of the respondents to acquire the majornumber of responses for ranking. The formula is presented below:Percentage(%)Where:f =frequencyn=number of respondents2. Weighted Mean.
It will be used for thedetermination of the average responses of the Senior High School students. Theformula is:Where:= Weighted meanf =frequencyx=value of the responsen=number of respondents3. Ranking. It is a relationship between setof items in terms of frequency or rating that shows the position of an item andcomparing or differentiating it with the other by the position or place of theitem in order or sequence.
This will be used by the researchers in order tofind out the frequency or the number of the majority or minority of therespondents that gave their preferred rating.