CHAPTER is to study and acquire information to




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            Students play a crucial role in the society. They serve
as the foundation of the future generations. A student’s main purpose is to
study and acquire information to contribute to self-growth and be able to share
knowledge to others. Other than home, the easiest way to learn is going to
school. Schools are institutions made specifically for learning. Memory
retention is very essential in learning especially in situations when you have
to recall a specific lesson for recitation or the homework that the teacher
gave before leaving the school premises.

the past, where there’s little or almost no modes of transportation available,
students walk their way to their respective schools even if it’s miles away.
But thanks to the innovative emergence of alternative means, different modes of
transportation are now accessible to everyone, especially students.

time flies, more and more vehicles (both private and public) now occupy the
streets of the Philippines, specifically in Manila. CNN Philippines (2015)
reported Manila topping the longest minute spent in commuting survey conducted
by a GPS-based navigation app called Waze and named it as a city that has the
“worst traffic on Earth”. This issue does not only apply to the workers but for
the students also who commute on a regular basis to go to their respective
schools or universities.

only does traffic and other modes of transportation hindrances can affect
student’s academic performance, this study seek to find out if there is a
relationship between the respondent’s home distance and memory retention.


            Several theories have been used to understand how the
memory functions. As well as how these people affects physically and
emotionally because several phenomena.

on How Memory Functions

Scientists don’t entirely grasp how
the memory organizes. They can’t predict what occurs while recalling a memory. The
brain’s organization and storage of memories have been an infinite journey for
cognitive researchers for decades but have enough theories to formulate
educated guesses regarding the subject.

According to Mohs (2007), the process
of memory starts with encoding, then progress its way to storage and finally,
retrieval. Formation of memory begins specifically through sensory and
perception, and requires paying attention.

will be then stored in short term memory which is known to have small
capacities. Essential learning may be transported to long term memory,
especially when used frequently. Long term memory is known to store unlimited
memories that make it easier to recall when needed. Experts find difficulty in identifying
the difference between true forgetting and failed retrieval of specific
information stored in the long term memory.


about the Relationship between Short term memory and Long term memory

According to Alison Preston, upgrading
short term memory to long term memory need the help of time have to be
unforgettable for it to become permanent or stay longer in a person’s memory.
Memories have different values.

As memories combine in the storage of
memory it will undergo changes, the longer memories are, the more it becomes
blurry. But if one event have other connections to newer memories, there is a
possibility that these memories will stay longer and still become intact inside
the memory storage.

The process of transferring short term
to long term memory and spreading information through the neurons depends on
the hippocampus (Preston, 2007). The movement of neurons is responsible for
filtering the memories being pushed inside the memory storage. If the neuron
can communicate with another neuron, then there is a possible way for the
memory to have the unforgettable factor and become long term after being in the
short term area. Having the same information on memory to another memory can
help recalling the other one. As time passes, the systems supporting the cells
will become brittle. A person may remember a particular memory but not as clear
as before.

To prove this idea, Preston set old
people who developed dementia or Alzheimer’s disease as an example of memories
fading away through time. There are many ways to prevent this kind of
situations. One important way is to have a good amount of sleep, water and
exercise. Drinking supplements like vitamins to strengthen memory can also
help. Having a good and healthy lifestyle can affect the cells inside a
person’s brain to function well and be able to restore more memories.

Theory of Forgetting

do people forget their past memories? Many studies are conducted regarding this
topic and different theories have been made such as fading caused by time and
the other is that the memory somehow failed to be retrieved. Experts developed
a theory about forgetting short and long term memory.

The brain’s capacity finds it
difficult to grasp small details at once as suggested by the displacement
theory. The old memories decay and replaced by the newer ones. According to
Murdocks (1962) the short term memory fades due to replacement by the newer
ones or decays because of staying too long over a period of time.

interference theory says that long term memory can be interfered by the other
memories so it will obliterate the original path of one particular memory.
That’s why doubt sometimes occur when recalling a past memory from a long time
ago. Because of this the information from the original memory will become
edited and not have an assurance. There are two ways of interference that can
cause forgetting. One is proactive interference, where you can learn other
informations because it will flourish other informations that is inside your
mind. The second one is the retroactive interference. Where you will fully
forgot your memory because of your current memory. For example when you have a
new phone number, you will have to memorize it, and because you have another
number, you will not need to remember your past number. It will be forgotten
because you created a new one.





            Figure 1 presents the research paradigm of the study. The
input variables show the demographic profile of respondents in terms of age, sex,
strand and distance from school. Process covers the steps needed for analyzing
data from respondents. Finally, the output presents the significant correlation
between home distance and memory retention.








Profile of Respondents
1.4.Distance from School






of the Problem

This study aims to find out the
correlation on the effects of home distance on memory retention of Senior High
School Students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

Specifically, it wants to answer the
following questions:

is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the following




from school

 How many hours do the respondents allot for
travel from home to school

home distance affect the respondents’ memory retention


researchers formulated a null hypothesis that there is no correlation between
home distance of Senior High School students of Polytechnic University of the
Philippines and memory retention.

and Limitations of the Study

            This study is delimited to Polytechnic University of the
Philippines, Sta. Mesa Main campus only. Through this setting, the students in
Senior High School from different strands were drawn. Generalization of the
study’s findings is limited to PUP and other schools in Manila in which the
students have similar situations.

other limitation is that time and funds for conducting this research were
limited. This is the reason why only one campus and only Senior High school
students are involved.

of the Study

            The results of this study may benefit the following

Students. Through this study, students,
especially those who are obligated to provide greater time and effort in going
to school would be informed of the possible effects on memory retention of
their home distances to schools.

The findings of this
study may help the teachers derive teaching strategies that will be more
successful and effective for the students. It may also improve their
understanding on the students who have live in greater distances from school.

As this study
involves cognitive aspects, specifically memory, the professionals such as the
psychologists can improve the scope of this study and provide more general

of Transportation and Communications (DOTC). The findings of this study may help this sect of
government address transportation hindrances and derive for further development
and improvement of overall transport systems in the country.

Through this study,
commuters will be aware that home distances and travel may or may not affect
their memory retention. Through this, they can address the possible effects
even in the middle of the traffic.

Researchers. For
those researchers in the future that will conduct a similar study to the
subject of this research, the findings will be beneficial to them as a source
of reference and comparison of data gathered.

of Terms

For a better understanding of the
research, the following terms are provided with their operational definitions.

                Memory is the concept in which
information is perceived or encoded by the human brain and stored for later

Retention is the ability in keeping or
preserving experiences and learning that makes a recall or recognition.

Hindrance is an act of making or
causing vehicles to stop, preventing motorist to move forward.

Traffic Congestion is a term that
describes an act being stocked in the midst of slow moving vehicles.





















This chapter will show the literature
and studies from foreign and local authors that are used by the researchers for
further understanding of the subject matter of this research.

traffic affect commuters

In our daily lives commuters are
dealing with long traffic and other transportation hindrances. Based on LTO’s (Land
Transportation Office) study, in the past few years, there’s 2,101,148
registered vehicles around Metro Manila. The traffic worsens every year,
compared to past years. listed some impacts of traffic on

Based on the Philippine Statistics Authority, half of the 37 million workers in
the Philippines take the easiest route in going to their respected companies every
day. Billions of students are also depending on public transportations. Longer
the hours the students and workers deal with long traffic may affect their performance
physically and mentally.

time. People getting up earlier to prepare for work or school do not guarantee punctuality
since traffic is unpredictable, especially in times of rush hour.

fatigue. Having to seat hours at the bus while thinking of problems at school
and work causes stress to commuters. With addition of pollution and heat may
result to having over fatigue and overtiredness.

(2015) also suggested alternatives and tips on how commuters can protect their
health to prevent illnesses like drinking vitamins, exercise and balanced diet,
proper sleep, using masks for protection from air pollution. Traffic has become
part of every commuter’s lives, there is no easy way to escape from it, but
there is a way for commuters to overcome the negative effects from it by making
their lifestyles healthy as possible.

and Fatigue amidst Traffic clog Affect Your Health

Due to thunder storm that results to
flood, most commuters spend hours on the road during rush hour and were caught
up by a terrible traffic clog along EDSA and its nearby roads.  Considering rain or protesters conquering the
road are not the only reason for the traffic that we’ve been experiencing,
above all, traffic clogs had been part of our daily life. Moreover, according
to (2015), the Philippines placed fifth on the categories with the
worse traffic in the whole world.

traffic clog is not the only reason to cause delay on people with their labor or
with their errands but more studies shows that, being in a city with a never
changing traffic will result in having a negative effect on your health. In
case of other commuters who were caught in a traffic clog, some of them were
experiencing sleep deprivation specifically to those who are forced to wake up
early in the morning to avoid rush hour and get to work on time.

on The Telegraph (2013) “A week with less than six hours of sleep each night
can lead you to 711 changes in how genes work.” In additional, being sleep deprived
can also affect the accomplishments, attention, and long-term memory. Additionally,
sleep deprivation can cause anxiety, exhaustion, frustration, impulsive
behavior, lower immunity, and some mental health problems. Furthermore, this
can encourage to do drugs and alcohol consumption.

Preventing memory from

This study determines that stress has
a big impact to our memory and so Dr. Klemm invented this study. According to
William R. Klemm Ph.D Memory Medic, It is notorious that stress can damage our
memory. This sort of experience that many of us has been known. Academic
performances of students has becoming worse because of struggling in stress
(Better Grades. Less effort 2011) Often Experiencing stress may cause failure
to our memory. Brain freezes, like Perry’s, other thoughts cannot apparent when
stress fills in our mind.

Buy some of this came from the
“fight or flight” response where stress triggered and the bloodstream
penetrates the adrenalin. (Memory power 101) When Adrenalin arises, it
activates the raising of heart rate and blood pressume and causes us to be
afraid and anxious. Laboratory experiments proves that the acceleration of
attentiveness has a beneficial effect on memory. And could injure our memory.

There are some happenings during
stress that can drives the anterior pituitary gland’s release of ACTH, to get
rid of cortisol toward the inside of bloodstream. For short, cortisol has the
ability to fight or prevent the stress. The white blood cells mobilizing and
enhancing immune system. Lastly, if we keep on encountering stress the process
of impairment will gets worst and the word cure will be impossible

Effects on academic performance of school

objective of this study is to find out which distance affected the student’s
academic performance in Makambako Town council’s secondary schools. Mhiliwa
(2015), the researcher, conducted his research in five community secondary
schools in Makambako TC. The data used in his research was gathered involved 2
educational officers, 12 teachers and 200 students (consists of 80 boys and 120
girls) with the use of semi-structured interview guide, questionnaires and
documentary review, through random purposive sampling technique. The data is determined
by using inductive analysis procedures. Then find out that the longer the
distance students travel in going to school, resulted in arriving to schools
late and with empty stomachs. Mhiliwa claimed that location of school has lead
to mass failure to most students and some have caused dropout thus fail to
attain their educational goals.

of school distance and academic achievement

            This study aimed to investigate the relationship between
academic achievement and school distance of primary school pupils. The
population was comprised by all the primary schools in the said location. A
structured questionnaire served as the instrument and was established using the
test re-test method to ensure its reliability. Using the Pearson Product Moment
Correlation (PPMC), the researchers analyzed the data gathered. The findings of
the study revealed that there is a positive, but very low positive, relationship
between the academic achievement of primary school pupils in Ovia North-East
Local Government Area and school distance. There is no significant relationship
explained between the two variables.

journeys to school undermine Education

            “Negative impact of taking long journeys to school have affects
a student’s health and on their education achievement levels” claimed one of
the conclusions of a recent study on absenteeism by the scientific institute of
the German health Care insurance company AOK. According to VBE (Verband Bildung
and Erziehung) federal and national President Udo Beckmann, neither education
authorities nor national governments examined the impact of long travel hours on
the student’s health and learning abilities in going to or from schools. He
claimed that travelling for up to three hours per day tires a child’s body more
than in adults.

also stated other consequential factors that affects a student physically and
psychologically like carrying a schoolbag longer, getting up earlier to go to
school and doing assignments later as well as reduction of free time necessary
for a balanced life. Because of these reasons, students may suffer the outcomes
like exhaustion and headaches.  Adults
that are part of a working environment have dealt and experienced such symptoms
and are mentally stronger than children, which are much more subject to stress
and exhaustion.

Synthesis of Related
Literature and Studies













chapter will discuss the methods of research that will be used in the study,
the population, sample size, and sampling technique, and the description of the
respondents. It will also discuss the research instrument that will be used in
treating the data.

Method of Research

study will use the descriptive method of research because this method is the
most appropriate in understanding the subject matter of the study. In other
words, it aims to describe the respondents who participate in the study. It
basically uses survey questionnaires as a method of gathering data needed for the

Population, Sample Size, and Sampling

respondents of the study are the Senior High School students of Polytechnic
University of the Philippines that has a population of eleven thousand, two
hundred forty-four (11,244). Using Slovin’s Formula to calculate the
appropriate sample size, three hundred seventy-two (372) respondents are needed
to participate in the study to answer the survey questions which are prepared
and arranged by the researchers. But 380 respondents are gathered to satisfy
the even distribution essential in the purposive sampling used in this study.

sampling technique used in the study is purposive sampling. According to
Crossman (2017), this sampling technique is a non-probability sample selected
based on the objective of the research and the characteristics of the

Research Instrument

instrument that used is a survey questionnaire. With the use of this
instrument, the researcher will gather much information needed to conduct the
study. The survey questionnaire is comprised by four (4) demographics or
profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, strand, and distance from
school followed by three (3) survey questionnaires validated by the research
adviser and pretested to 10-20 persons.

The last
demographic profile (distance from home) 
will be a multiple choice question that provides five (5) possible
answers — 1-5km, 6-10km, 11-15km, 16-20km, and 20km or
more — and one (1) additional question if the respondent is unsure
of the distance of their home to school.

second survey question needs the respondent to specify how many hours, it may
be estimated, they allot for travel in going to school. The third survey
question is a yes/no question followed by the fourth, which asks for specific
observations of the respondents that will help and specify the study.

Data Gathering Procedure

survey questionnaire approved or validated by the researchers’ adviser is
distributed to 380 respondents, which are Senior High School students of
Polytechnic University of the Philippines, through purposive sampling. After
answering the survey questionnaire, the researchers started the tabulation for
the analysis and interpretation from the data gathered.

Statistical Treatment of Data

data gathered from the respondents are tallied, tabulated, encoded, and
interpreted by item. The following statistical tools will be used to treat the
responses that will be gathered.

1. Frequency and Percentage. This will be
used to determine the percentage rate of the respondents to acquire the major
number of responses for ranking. The formula is presented below:



f =

number of respondents

2. Weighted Mean. It will be used for the
determination of the average responses of the Senior High School students. The
formula is:


= Weighted mean

f =

value of the response

number of respondents

3. Ranking. It is a relationship between set
of items in terms of frequency or rating that shows the position of an item and
comparing or differentiating it with the other by the position or place of the
item in order or sequence. This will be used by the researchers in order to
find out the frequency or the number of the majority or minority of the
respondents that gave their preferred rating.