CHAPTER Neglect (IPSCAN) defines Child Sexual Abuse

 CHAPTER 2Literature Review2.

1 IntroductionChild abuse is ofgreat concern for every human being around the world.  This chapter reviews the relevant researcheson child abuse in the early childhood education.  The definition of child abuse will begiven.  Particular attention will begiven to better empower early childhood teachers to cater for the Preschoolchild in Mauritius.

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  2.2 Definitions of child abuse Jonathan Davidov, Laura I Sigad, and RachelLev-Wiesel Ziv Elsikovits) article first published online March31, 2016; issuepublished: September 1, 2017 stated that “child abuse is a complex socialproblem that cannot be understood from a single disciplinary perspective.Successful intervention requires involvement of various professionalgroups.  While such cooperation has manypotential advantages, in practice, it presents challenges to effectiveintervention”.

(The case of child abusework, Jonathan Davidov, Laura I Sigad, Rachel Lev-Wiesel Ziv Elsikovits)article first published online March31, 2016; issue published: September 1,2017However the UNworld report on “Violence against children” 2006 states that child abuse is asubstantial and serious global problem. Children are abused in various settingsby different people such as parents, family members at home, by care givers andteachers.  Sexual abuse, physical andpsychological violence, and sexual harassment are forms of violence which occurin all settings by different people. (World report on violence againstchildren) There are many types of child abuseamong which are:·        Physical Abuse: Physical hitting,unlawful corporal punishment or injury, wilfully harming or endangering achild, hot cars.·        Neglect: General and severe,lack of basic needs, malnutrition.

·        Emotional Abuse: Causing psychologicalor emotional instability.·        Verbal Abuse: Yelling, screaming,belittling, bullying, and cursing.·        Sexual Abuse: Sexual assault,pornography, exploitation.·        Domestic Violence: Dysfunctional orviolent home or family.

·        Abandonment: Parent’s identity or whereaboutsunknown, no support.According to common definitions, The WHO (World Health Organisation), togetherwith the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect(IPSCAN) defines Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) broadly as the involvement of a childin sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend,  is unable to give informed consent to, orelse that violate the laws or social taboos of society.  WHO 2006: 10 (Preventing Child Sexual Abuse)Evidence, policy and practice Stephen smallbone, William L.Marshall and RichardWortley published by Routledge 2014.

The WHO 2006, recognised that along withphysical abuse, neglect and negligent treatment, emotional abuse and thecommercial or other exploitation of children, CSA is one of the five types ofchild abuse that is of a considerable magnitude.  Early prevalence studies used broaddefinitions of CSA that included behaviours such as being invited to dosomething sexual, being kissed, and nongenital intercourse.  There is no agreed definition of child sexualabuse (Macdonal 2001; Trickett 2006).

  Itis a term used to describe a range of experiences involving a child in unwanted,inappropriate, coercive and unlawful sexual exploitation by an adult or olderchild.  The WHO defines that CSA is theinvolvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fullycomprehend, is unable to give consent, or that violates the laws of socialtaboos of society (WHO 1999, p.15)According to the figures from the AustralianInstitute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), rates of child abuse have increasedacross the world.  Dr Freya Petersen,staff 25 Oct 2013).  Across Australia,emotional abuse was most common type of abuse followed by neglect and physicalabuse.  However, sexual abuse was morecommon among girls. In Mauritius, arise in different types of abuses is being registered.

  Despite the ratification of the child’srights made by the Mauritian Government, the increasing number of child abusecases is alarming.   Mauritius was one among the countries who ratified the CRC onthe 29th July 1990.  SinceMauritius has adopted and ratified the CRC, it has the duty to protect the childrights among which one is abuse as stated in the article 19 of the CRC TheCRC Article1 describes that “a child means every human beingbelow the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child,majority is attained earlier”.  According to the CRC the child has 42 rightsthat have been internationally adopted in the general assembly of the UnitedNations on the 20th November 1989 and entry into force onthe 2nd September 1990.

Article19 of the CRC clearly describes each stakeholder’s responsibility; 1. ” StatesParties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social andeducational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mentalviolence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment orexploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legalguardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.”2.Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective proceduresfor the establishment of social programs to provide necessary support for thechild and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other formsof prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation,treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment describedheretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.”  Article 19 of the CRC, clearly defines theresponsibility of all stakeholders concerned with the child protection andmainly in connection with child abuse.

 Starting from the government to all people connected directly orindirectly with the child is responsible and has the duty to protect, care andreport any type of abuse caused to a child who is under his/her responsibility.In   MerfatFayez, Hanan Mahmoud Takash & Eman Khleif Al-Zboon (2014) Combatingviolence against children: Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers’perceptions towards child abuse and neglect, Early Child Development and Care,184:9-10, 1485-1498, DOI: it states that Earlychildhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect andalleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, that studyaimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers defineand perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detectionand prevention. Similarly in Mauritius also the pre primary school teachers playan important role in caring for the young child aged 3 to 5 years.  The National Curriculum Framework of the preprimary (2010) clearly mentions that educators have an important role in theeducational life of the preschool child. It clearly describes the role ofteachers towards parents, community and children.  It also mentions that teachers should respectthe CRC.

  . Educators are in theperfect position to help children learn about their rights.  Teachersguide children toward understanding their rights.  Educatorsare also good role models for respecting the dignity and integrity of children.Educators can engage parents, children and community members to promotechildren’s rights by encouraging advocacy with local and national governments,initiating dialogue on children’s issues and creating a forum for children toexpress their opinions and views (UNICEF: According to the National Association for theEducation of Young Children, the most important characteristic for teachers ofearly childhood development is enthusiasm and passion for children.

This goeswell beyond enjoying being with children. It means wanting to make a differenceto each and every child. Teachers must have the drive to unlock every child’sdoor to learning, overcoming any obstacle a child may have.  One of the obstacles may be child abuse.   2.3 Teachers role Teachers have a very important role, place andconsideration in the life of a student.

  Through their normal daily contact teachers can easily identify childrenwho are victims of child abuse.  However,they should be trained so as to be able to identify the signs of abuses.  The teacher should be able to build a trustbetween him/her and the child so as to be able to confirm the abusecaused.

  As Erikson, the theorist clearlypoints out about Trust V/S Mistrust.Teachers should be able to put the CRCinto practice during the activities at school.   2.4Teachers Training and empowermentNowadays, teacher training andprofessional development are seen as central mechanisms for the improvement ofteachers’ content knowledge and their skills and practices in order to meethigh educational standards (Darling-Hammond & Mc Laughlin, 1995) cited inthe Importance of Teachers’ Training and Professional Development in theAlgerian Educational Context: Toward informed and Effective Teaching Practices(accessed Dec 17 2017) Furthermorein the joint message of the UNESCO on the 5 October 2017 on the occasion of the World Teachers Day, it was pointedout that “teachers are a critical foundation of every society’slong-term strength — providing children, young people and adults with theknowledge and skills they need to fulfill their potential.  But around theworld, far too many teachers don’t have the freedom and support they need to dotheir vitally important jobs. That is why the theme of this year’s WorldTeachers’ Day –”Teaching in Freedom, Empowering Teachers” – reaffirms the valueof empowered teachers and recognizes the challenges many encounter in theirprofessional lives across the globe”. Therefore the quality of training is very important so as teachers canbe more empowered to cater for abused children.

Being an empowered teacher means havingaccess to high-quality training, fair wages, and continuous opportunities forprofessional development. It also means having the freedom to support thedevelopment of national curricula — and the professional autonomy to choosethe most appropriate methods and approaches that enable more effective,inclusive and equitable education. Furthermore, it means being able to teach insafety and security during times of political change, instability, andconflict.” An approach ofprevention is to train the teachers to identify and report signs of abuse andoffer support to children who have been victims of abuse.

  It is said that school personnel are in abetter position to observe signs of abuses (Child abuse training of teacherssupport)Training cansignificantly improve teacher’s knowledge about the signs of abuses andincrease their inclinations about reporting abuses.  In Mauritius, early childhood teacherstraining are provided by the Mauritius Institute of Education (MIE), the OpenUniversity (OU), the Charles Telfair Institute (CTI), some private institutionsrecognised by the MQA and the MITD.  Though teachers havea wide range of training institutions, yet the subject of child abuse has notbeen developed in particular course content. The Modules Information do not provide one module separately for “childabuse”.CHAPTER 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1IntroductionResearch is crucial to get an in-depthunderstanding on how pre-primary school teachers in Mauritius can be empoweredto better cater for the pre-school abused children. This chapter addresses themethodology used in this study.  It isorganised into five major sections.

  Thepurpose of this study is to examine how far preschool teachers recognise signsof child abuse and whether they are able to cater for the abused child so as toeducate the abused child into a normal preschool setting.3.2Research DesignA survey research design was used in thisstudy. Its purpose was to obtain data from pre primary school teachersconcerning child abuse in both public and private pre primary schools inMauritius.

  According to Aliaga andGunderson (2002), P.10), qualitative research is defined as “explainingphenomena by collecting numerical data that are analysed using mathematicallybased methods (in particular statistics)”. A quantitative research examinesresults “based upon manipulating independent variables and when comparing thelevel of independent variables related ” (Smith,2003,p.5).

Many studies made use of qualitativeapproach.  Bogler et al. 2014, Zulig, Koopman,Patton and Ubbes (2010) usedqualitative approach for assessing school climate.  For this study, a survey was conducted inorder to assess child abuse in pre schools and how far teachers are able tocater for the abused child. 3.3 SamplingframeThe pre-primary schools in Mauritius aredivided into four zones.  The sample forthis study consisted of 120 teachers from private, public and local governmentschools.

  A total of 12 private, stateand local government schools from both rural and urban areas across the fourzones were selected.  Only pre primaryschool teachers were selected for this study. 3.4Questionnaire designA self administered questionnaire was usedin this study so as to assess child abuse in pre primary schools.  The questionnaire is divided into   sections. After a review of the literature, 42 variables were grouped under 5sections.  These sections were: Profileof teachers, profile of abused children, signs of abuse, reporting of Childabuse, the approach used by teachers with the abused child and the behaviour ofthe abused child.Section A deals with the teacher concerninghis/her profile and years of experience as preschool teacher.

Section B willgive an overview of the abused child in connection with the type of abuse andwhen it occurred whereas, section C will try to evaluate teacher’s knowledge inidentifying abuse. Section D will deal with the reporting of child abuse bypreschool teachers.  The teachingapproach used with the abused child also will be dealt in the section E andfinally the behaviour of the abused child will be inquired in the last sectionthat is section FThis study aims at 3.5Data collection Preprimary schools teachers in all the four zones of Mauritius were selected forthis study.  The questionnaire waspersonally distributed by me through mails and some were handed a printedcopy.  This has facilitated thecollection of the completed questionnaires within a short period of time. 3.6Data analysisA reliability measurement was used inthis study.

  The statistical measurementanalysis was carried out with SPSS       software program.               CHAPTER 4FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS            


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