Buckley, Temperature and ventilation in the classroom are

Scheider & Shang (2007) posited that one factor which directly affects
teacher work life is indoor air quality. They further explained that teacher’s
behaviour and attitude are related to the quality of the classroom environment.

and ventilation in the classroom are crucial factors which influences the teaching
learning environment. Harmon (1953) furthered that classrooms should be designed
in such a way which allows not just students but teachers to control the ventilation
of the room.

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2.5       Ventilation
in classes


Enrichment areas in classrooms




1999; Stewart and Evans, 1997) posited that the arrangement of the physical
learning environment plays a fundamental role in the teaching learning process.
They further stated that this physical arrangement not only affects the
performance of pupils but teachers as well.

a philosophy on learning expressed that sizable open floor spaces forges the
way for free movement in the classroom. In a model classroom, teachers would
have adequate space to rearrange seating to facilitate any learning
instructional strategy they choose to implement when teaching their primary
class. According to Bonus and Riodan (1998), seating should be flexible in
order to accommodate various learning activities. Seating arrangement and space
is important in a learner-centered classroom. This allows pupils to interact
and engage in projects along with task given by the teacher. Taylor (2008)
stated that proper space allows for a variety of teaching methods and instructional
strategies to occur.

           includes the floor space, seating
accommodation and crowdedness of a class.

in the classroom is one aspect of the hidden curriculum. Classroom space

2.3       Classroom
space and seating accommodation



2.2       Satisfaction
teachers get from teaching






done by (Taylor, 2008; Veitch & Arkkelin, 1995; Voelkl 1995) as cited by
Hensley-Pipkin (2015) give emprial evidence which suggest that there is a
relationship between environmental elements and human behaviour. These
environmental elements being space, seating arrangement, temperature and enrichment
corners. The physical environment of the classroom should support teaching and
learning skills. This type of learning environment is backed by Copple and
Bredekamp (2009) who suggest that a quality learning environment should have
individual learning space, quality research tools and materials.

(2013) explained that when a teacher’s physical environment is aligned to the
principles of learner centered instruction, teachers may be better prepared to meet
current learning and skill expectations. Montessori (1912) proposed that
teachers should prepare the classroom environment for learning. She further
states that children should have a variety of easily available and accessible
learning materials which would invite and enhance learning.

(1997) stated that the main goal of education should be to give support to the
instinctive exploration of the child. Constructivist Pigaet (1953) stated that
children learn more when they are actively engaged in the learning process. He
added that children at the primary leave who are at the concrete operational
stage, build knowledge through investigation and discovery. The constructivism
theory encourages that the learning environment be able to drive curiosity and
exploration in children which will enhance the learning process. Dewey (1897)

to Taylor (2009), he believed that different learning goals require distinct
learning strategies, varied instructional strategies and different learning
spaces. Lang (1987) cited that the physical structure should afford direct
support for human activities. This moot was further reiterated by (Marzano
Center, 2013; Vygotsky, 1978) who stated that to aid the learning process
children should be provided with diverse learning experiences and a
well-planned learning environment.

space has the potential to promote and strengthen the learning process in the
same way as the overt curriculum. Taylor and Vastos (2009) attributed the
physical environment as the silent curriculum. Skinner posited that the
classroom environment should be conductive to children learning. Further, Lang
(2004) expressed that the curriculum for creating learning environment is
delivered in the way the classroom is organized.

theoretical framework for this research will be based on the work of Dewey and
Piaget on constructivism, as well as Lang’s work on Architectural Theory. The
physical learning environment is according to Tunan (1979) an indoor
environment where most of the education of children takes place. In Dewey’s
philosophy of learning he states that the environment plays a pivotal role in
education. He describes the environment as curriculum, instructional methods
and physical setting.


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