British The whole subcontinent was commonly referred to

British Raj is the period of
British colonial rule over the Indian Subcontinent lasting from 1858 to 1947 or
over the present day countries India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Pakistan. The
whole subcontinent was commonly referred to as India for contemporaneous usage consisting
of regions directly under full control of United Kingdom known as the British
India and areas ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British paramountcy,
called Princely States. In total there were over 565 princely states during the
period of British colonial rule.

The World’s interest aligned
over the Indian Sub-continent when substantial amount of gold, minerals and
above all numerous, countless distinct spices were  discovered in the lush green lands of the
subcontinent leading to a large competition between companies, the most
prominent of them being  East India
Company of United Kingdom. The Company with full backing of the British Empire
strived to get complete control over the trading business and little by little
raised over regional power, disposing local rulers and eliminating European
competition, started it’s colonial rule over the Indian Sub-continent.

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The region
under the British rule sparked many instances of conflicts and disagreements
leading to the creation of a broad based political party called Indian National
Congress in 1885. This party consisted of people from all over the subcontinent
with different backgrounds, majority of people following Hinduism and it claimed
to represent all the people of the Indian Subcontinent under the British rule
regardless of religion, race or creed. But these claims fell short when the
Hindu leaders started favouring Hindus in most matters such as the Hindi-Urdu
controversy upsetting the Muslim community. As more and more matters were being
advocated for one community rather than for all, many Muslims felt the call to
address the concerns of the Muslim identity within the British Raj, leading to
the formation of the All India Muslim League in December 30, 1906. Its original political goal was to define
and advance the Indian Muslim’s civil rights and to provide protection to the
upper and gentry class of Indian Muslims.

Many influential leaders rose up and paved way for the creation of a
separate autonomous State in which the Muslims could freely practice their
religion without anyonce becoming an obstacle in their path. Leaders such as
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan who was the first muslim to introduce a separate state
theory, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who eventually led the movement for a separate
state as the head of the All India Muslim League later becoming known as the
Father of the nation, with Pakistan officially giving him the title of
“Quaid-e-Azam” or “Great Leader”, and Allama Mohammad Iqbal, who refreshed the
mentality of grief stricken common Muslims population still basking in their
old glory with his philosophical and spiritual poetry and writing. He once
said:

“People who
have no hold over their process of thinking are likely to be ruined by liberty
of thought. If thought is immature, liberty of thought becomes a method of
converting men into animals.”

Mohammad Ali
Jinnah called for a general session of the party at Lahore in 1940 to discuss
the situation that had fallen before them due to the declaration of Second
World War and the Government of British India joining the war without taking
the opinion of the Indian leaders. He also welcomed the Two Nation Theory and
gave numerous reason for supporting it. In this meeting the Lahore Resolution
was drafted and adopted on 23 March 1940. The resolution ran as follows:

“The areas where the Muslims are numerically in a majority as
in the North western and Eastern zones of British India should be grouped to
constitute ‘independent states’ in which the constituent units shall be
autonomous and sovereign.”

 After the Second World War, the British Government was
left financially poor and completely incompetent to continue its sovereignty
over the sub-continent with hundreds of millions of people protesting and
demanding for justice. Soon, the British Government finally gave in to the
demand of the people specifically the Muslims to divide peacefully before
quitting the Indian sub-continent. The Brave-hearted people passed through a
Sea of Fire as the partition left Punjab and Bengal, two of the largest
provinces, divided between India and Pakistan. According to the United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), approximately 14 million people
consisting of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims were displaced during the partition.
Wars such as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 between the two newly formed states
also followed due to the abjectly analyzed demarcation known as the Radcliffe
line. 

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