Background: on the contents, plans when and how

Background: In fact, I have two different previous experiences ofinstructional and assessment methods.

The first experience was during mystudies as an undergraduate respiratory therapy student in USA. The secondexperience takes place when I have worked as an instructor in respiratorytherapy program at College of Applied Medical Sciences, KSAU-HS. In the firstexperience, the instructional and assessment mothed was a traditional method ofteaching, which was a teacher-centered delivery of instruction, and itsassessment only test memorized data at lower-level thinking skills. In the second experience, the instructional andassessment mothed was the modern method of teaching, which was astudent-centered and the student learning is the focus of the class.

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Theassessment of this method tests not only the students’ knowledge, but alsotheir high-level thinking skills, hands-on skills, and attitude. Based on my experience, there are differences andsimilarities between traditional and modern teaching, and both of these twomethods have certain advantages and disadvantages. The two of my previousexperiences will be discussed in the following sections.

TraditionalTeaching Method: In this method of teaching, teacher-centered,focus is on the instructor only. Shuell (1996) defines this method as “Teacher-centeredapproach include instruction where the teacher’s role is to present theinformation that is to be learned and to direct the learning process ofstudents”. Generally, the instructor talks and actively involves inteaching while the students passively listen to the instructor (Udovic, Morris,Dickman, Postlethwait and Wetherwax, 2002). Only the instructor who can choosestopics, decides on the contents, plans when and how to deliver contents,assesses these contents, and answers students’ questions. This approach doesnot improve students’ critical thinking and problem-solving skills (Hannafinand Land, 1997).

For example from my previous experiences as an undergraduaterespiratory therapy student, the instructor gave us a lecture in Oxygen therebyand Devises, the indications, and the flow rate and oxygen percentages for eachdevices, and troubleshooting, followed by a practicum lab. The assessment ofthis lecture was a test in a multiple-choice question format, which themajority of these type of questions tested recall, and few of them involvedanalysis application, or evaluation.The advantageof traditional teaching method, the instructor directs all classroom activatesand ensured that all material is useful and up-to-date, makes this approachrequiring less time to find teaching materials or the information, because theinstructor already prepared first before starting the teaching process. Inaddition, it can be easy to ensure that each student receives the informationthat presented by the instructor. On the otherhand, there are disadvantages of traditional teaching method. In this method ofteaching, the instructor is primary source of the information that given to thestudents, and the primary evaluator. The students here only receive theinformation and become passive learners; they do not have the opportunity toplay a role in searching and getting the information by themselves (Huba andFreed, 2000). This type of education knowing as Spoon–Feeding, which leads toimpede independent learning, and destroy initiative and problem-solving skills(Boyer, 1987).

Students in this case, do not initiate any active effort. Theymainly focus in taking notes, and knowing the information to pass the exam andget the expected grades (Dehler, 2014). It is because the instructor as thecenter and the source of teaching, the instructor should deliver the instructionalobjectives and materials well, otherwise, students may have difficulties.Modern Teaching Method:In contrast totraditional instruction, in modern method of teaching (student-centeredapproach), the focus will be change from teaching to learning, and students andinstructor share the focus. That makes the students to take responsibility andhave more of an active role to play in what and how they learn instead of howteachers teach them (Weimer, 2002, and Wohlfarth et.

al, 2008). The role of theinstructor will be shifted from information giver to a facilitator who providesfeedback and helps students to find answers for their questions when needed,and helps students achieve their goals. In addition to that, the students giveeach other feedback and answer other’s’ questions. In this method, theinstructor evaluates student learning, students also evaluate their ownlearning.The advantagesof modern teaching method (student-centered)including but not limited to:·        Learning communicativeand collaborative skills·        Developmentin thinking skills·        Gainingproblem-solving skills·        Creating alternativeassessment methods ·        Encouragingstudents to participate in the class·        More helpingand motivating among the students·        Learning synthesizeseveral sources of information and references to draw a conclusion


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