Background: not only the students’ knowledge, but also


In fact, I have two different previous experiences of
instructional and assessment methods. The first experience was during my
studies as an undergraduate respiratory therapy student in USA. The second
experience takes place when I have worked as an instructor in respiratory
therapy program at College of Applied Medical Sciences, KSAU-HS.

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 In the first
experience, the instructional and assessment mothed was a traditional method of
teaching, which was a teacher-centered delivery of instruction, and its
assessment only test memorized data at lower-level thinking skills.

In the second experience, the instructional and
assessment mothed was the modern method of teaching, which was a
student-centered and the student learning is the focus of the class. The
assessment of this method tests not only the students’ knowledge, but also
their high-level thinking skills, hands-on skills, and attitude.

Based on my experience, there are differences and
similarities between traditional and modern teaching, and both of these two
methods have certain advantages and disadvantages. The two of my previous
experiences will be discussed in the following sections.

Teaching Method:

 In this method of teaching, teacher-centered,
focus is on the instructor only. Shuell (1996) defines this method as “Teacher-centered
approach include instruction where the teacher’s role is to present the
information that is to be learned and to direct the learning process of
students”. Generally, the instructor talks and actively involves in
teaching while the students passively listen to the instructor (Udovic, Morris,
Dickman, Postlethwait and Wetherwax, 2002). Only the instructor who can chooses
topics, decides on the contents, plans when and how to deliver contents,
assesses these contents, and answers students’ questions. This approach does
not improve students’ critical thinking and problem-solving skills (Hannafin
and Land, 1997). For example from my previous experiences as an undergraduate
respiratory therapy student, the instructor gave us a lecture in Oxygen thereby
and Devises, the indications, and the flow rate and oxygen percentages for each
devices, and troubleshooting, followed by a practicum lab. The assessment of
this lecture was a test in a multiple-choice question format, which the
majority of these type of questions tested recall, and few of them involved
analysis application, or evaluation.

The advantage
of traditional teaching method, the instructor directs all classroom activates
and ensured that all material is useful and up-to-date, makes this approach
requiring less time to find teaching materials or the information, because the
instructor already prepared first before starting the teaching process. In
addition, it can be easy to ensure that each student receives the information
that presented by the instructor.

On the other
hand, there are disadvantages of traditional teaching method. In this method of
teaching, the instructor is primary source of the information that given to the
students, and the primary evaluator. The students here only receive the
information and become passive learners; they do not have the opportunity to
play a role in searching and getting the information by themselves (Huba and
Freed, 2000). This type of education knowing as Spoon–Feeding, which leads to
impede independent learning, and destroy initiative and problem-solving skills
(Boyer, 1987). Students in this case, do not initiate any active effort. They
mainly focus in taking notes, and knowing the information to pass the exam and
get the expected grades (Dehler, 2014). It is because the instructor as the
center and the source of teaching, the instructor should deliver the instructional
objectives and materials well, otherwise, students may have difficulties.

Modern Teaching Method:

In contrast to
traditional instruction, in modern method of teaching (student-centered
approach), the focus will be change from teaching to learning, and students and
instructor share the focus. That makes the students to take responsibility and
have more of an active role to play in what and how they learn instead of how
teachers teach them (Weimer, 2002, and Wohlfarth, 2008). The role of the
instructor will be shifted from information giver to a facilitator who provides
feedback and helps students to find answers for their questions when needed,
and helps students achieve their goals. In addition to that, the students give
each other feedback and answer other’s’ questions. In this method, the
instructor evaluates student learning, students also evaluate their own

The advantages
of modern teaching method (student-centered)
including but not limited to:

Learning communicative
and collaborative skills

in thinking skills

problem-solving skills

Creating alternative
assessment methods

students to participate in the class

More helping
and motivating among the students

Learning synthesize
several sources of information and references to draw a conclusion


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