Growth and prosperity of an economy, to an extent Is reflected in its physical appearance. The industry responsible for this is the construction industry, which for quite some time is experiencing boom. Time have changed and so has our focus, from the basic necessary of housing and shelter of yesteryear, emphasis is given on comfort luxury and style. All this has importantly led to creation of avenues for those interested in making a career in this sector. In the last few decades our economy has witnessed massive construction activities, new structures have been raised, townships have evolved, evident of growth in the sector.
The construction task involves both the designer and constructors. Any built structure is and an outcome of close coordination and participation of a number of people, technical and non-technical including architecture, contractors, surveyors, engineers, designers along, with bricklayers, masons, carpenters, Electrician, plumbers etc. Everyone is specialized in his own area hence beyond comparison.
Architecture is a term with several meanings. all related to buildings It may refer to the art and science of building, practiced by artists called architects. Or architecture may mean the buildings themselves. The term also has a historical meaning referring either to the building style of a particular culture or to an artist I movement. For example, we speak of Greek architecture I1r Gothic architecture.
Architects create many kinds of structures. For example, they design houses. schools, hotels, hospitals, stadiums factories, office buildings, theatres, and houses of worship. Architects also design monuments dedicated to the memory of important events and people. The beauty of a city or town is largely determined by the quality of its architecture.
Although architecture has artistic qualities, it must satisfy, important practical requirements. for example, an architect may design an office building that looks beautiful. But if people cannot work comfortably and efficiently in it, then building tails architecturally.
Architecture also relies on technology and material science. A building must be constructed strongly so that it will not collapse. Especially in high buildings and skyscrapers. architects have to use materials that can withstand heavy loads and stresses. Furthermore. big buildings have to withstand strong winds, and in certain areas, earthquakes.
There are unique features of architecture that set it apart from other arts. In most cases, painters, writers, composers and other artists create their works and then try to sell them. But a building may cost thousands and millions of Rupees to construct. In nearly all instances, architects must have a buyer for their work before they create it. For example, rarely can an architect design an office building, afford to have it constructed and then try to find someone who will buy it.
Unlike some other artist’s architects must work with other people to produce designs. Novelists. for example, can create their stories from their own inspiration. But almost all architects design a building for a client and must observe the client’s wishes and needs. Within the limits of those wishes and needs. architect’s can make their artistic contributions.
Architects work closely with the client throughout the development of a building design. They decide how best to fulfill the client’s requirements and give advice on probable costs. Architects make drawings and models that show how the building will look after it is completed. They also work with the many different contractors who actually build the structure. Architects supervise the construction of the building and they generally receive a percentage of the construction budget as their fee.
Architecture is one of the oldest art forms. It dates from prehistoric times and is found in almost all societies. A society’s architecture reflects the values and ideals of its people. For example, the ancient Greeks stressed discipline and harmony in life, and so they created an architectural style that was balanced and orderly. The beautifully proportioned Greek temple reflects this emphasis on harmony. Religion influences architecture throughout the world. Islamic mosques feature minarets (towers) from which Muslim are called to prayer. Buddhism produced dome-shaped monuments called stupas, which were a geometric symbol of the perfect and immortal. The Middle Ages was a period of deep religious faith in Europe. Architects designed majestic cathedrals with vaults (arched ceilings) that seemed to soar toward heaven. These cathedrals were intended to inspire reverence among worshippers.
Architects rank among the greatest figures in the history of art. But many architectural masterpieces were designed by skilled craft workers who were not professional architects. These people did not consider themselves artists and had no idea that they had created buildings which critics would praise as important works oi architecture.
Element of architecture
In designing a building, architects think in terms of space, planes, and openings_ They consider a building as space-enclosed by planes — that is, by, the surface of walls, floors, and ceilings. Openings include doorways. indoles. and archways. An architect “s basic task is to “shape” space into appropriate and practical forms through the arrangement of openings and planes. At various times in history, architects have considered certain we, mere beautiful than others and have emphasized them in their designs. The most popular shapes have included the square. rectangle, and sphere. Architects often combine two or more shapes in one design.
A building should be pleasing to look at, but it should also enable people to live or work in it comfortably and r efficiently. In addition, the structure should be well built so that it can stand a long time without expensive maintenance. To create an attractive and efficient building, an architect must balance three major elements: (1) function. (2) appearance, and (3) durability.
Function – Every building is designed for certain purposes. A functional building whether a small house or a gigantic office building fulfills those purposes by serving the needs of its users in a pleasant and convenient way. The building is also designed to provide adequate heating, lighting, sources of power, and, in some cases, air conditioning.
Today, energy conservation has become an important consideration in architectural planning. For example, architects may use large windows or even entire walls made of glass to help heat a building with solar energy.
Many activities may take place within a building. In a house, such activities include eating, sleeping, bathing, and entertaining. Each activity has different requirements in regard to the location size, lighting and accessibility of the rooms in which the activity occurs. For example, a bedroom is a private room and should be set off from the rest of the living spaces. But everyone in a house user the dining room, and so it should be more centrally located.
An office building involves a much more complex arrangement of space than a house. The architect must make sure that hundreds of workers can move quickly through the various part of the building. in addition, visitor should able to enter and bind leave the building easily Parts of the structure may have to house special equipment’s, and a large amount of storage space may be required. The architect must also consider the that take place outside the building, for example- the building may require parking facilities. In addition, the architect may have to Plan traffic patterns so that vehicles can approach and leave the building without crossing, many lanes of traffic. Driveways must be wide enough for fire engines to enter. and loading docks must be the proper height for delivery trucks
Appearance – An architect determines the exterior appearance of the building not only by its shape but also by the choice of materials. The natural colours of stone, brick, and wood have always been popular, alone or in combinations. During the 1900’s. timed glass has played an important role in exterior building design. Many architects choose rough-textured wood or stone. Others prefer the sleek, elegant quality of highly polished glass and metal.
A number of architects have created dramatic or pleasing patterns through the skillful arrangement of materials, for example, architects have used glass and concrete, various combinations of brickwork, or contrasting kinds of stone.
Proportion is vital to a building’s appearance. All the parts of a building should he in proper relation to one another, neither too large nor too small. In addition, the size and shape of the building should also blend with its site and surroundings. A tall glass and metal building would be appropriate in the central area of a large city but it would be out of place in a neighborhood of single-family houses.
Durability – Most architecture intended to stand a long time. To last many years without costly maintenance, a building must have a strong foundation. In addition, the exterior must be able to resist wear and damp penetration from the weather, and high quality materials must be used in the interior.