According to Encyclopedia 2016, analgesic is medicines that relieve pain. Analgesic drugs are also known as painkillers. In addition, Floyd E. Bloom 2017 stated that analgesic can be classified into two different types: anti-inflammatory drugs, which control pain by reducing local inflammatory responses; and opioids, which specifically affects the brain. The opioid analgesics were also known in the past as narcotic drugs because it can serve as an additive that can make a person fall into sleep easily. Opioid analgesics can be used to relief severe pain for either short-term or long-term. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used for short-term pain relief and for modest pain. However, professionals in field of science have proven that opioids (also known as narcotics) had been controversial because of it being associated with a huge risk of abuse, overdose, and addiction. A specific tool called DIRE (Diagnosis, Intractability, Risk and Efficacy) is used by doctors in order to help them in assessing different factors such as: patients cause of pain, psychological health, chemical health, and social support. The result score suggests that if a specific person will benefit a lot in using opioid analgesics with least risk of adverse effects. It is not appropriate for a person that has high possibility of addiction to use opioid analgesics.
On the other hand, continuous study of producing analgesic drugs with the use of herbal medicines is rampant in the world according to the Surgical Neurological International, since long term use of analgesic drug will be persistent safety concerns should be considered in prescribing this kind of medications for chronic and degenerative pain conditions. Even thought nonsteroidal medications can be far more effective, herbal and dietary supplements is much safer, and often an effective alternative treatment for relieving of pain, especially for long-term use. Thus, herbal medications are increasingly becoming popular because of its relatively fewer side effects. However, more study is needed in order to provide stronger evidences of it being equally effective with prescribed medicines. It is really important for health professionals to know about these scientific studies to advice patients who are taking different types of herbal minerals, dietary supplements and vitamins for both disease treatment and prevention.