Allparties who involved in the current issues are stakeholder. Previous researcheshave declared it clearly. Stakeholder is some group or individual that caninfluence one and another through attainment of the organization objectives suchas actions, policies, decisions, and target (Xu & Li, 2013). Clarkson Centre for Business Ethics divides stakeholderas primary one and secondary one.
Primary stakeholders are the parties thatgive a guarantee of firm through solving problem about economic stake andmanaging risk. The creditors and the shareholders that have contractualresponsibilities, the government and the communities which have non-contractualresponsibilities in the firms are the component of primary stakeholder. On theother hand, secondary stakeholders do not manage the firm directly. But both ofstakeholders type influence one and another through activities (Magness, 2008). Moreover, Miles (2012) reported some stakeholders definitions based on its authors,such as Mitchell (1997) classifies stakeholder by attribute possession in the firm namely; the power toimpress the organization, the ability to justify relationship with the organization,and the ability to insist claim on theorganization. The Manager’srole shapes a business through stakeholder relationship by producing anddistributing value in dissimilar manner for many different stakeholders (Schlierer et al.
, 2012). In other words, stakeholders have the role important tomake the firm to be successful. Changing stakeholder relationship can causetroubles because of variety of expectation, competition and antagonistic ofstakeholder (Xu & Li, 2013). Initially,” stakeholder theory is a theory oforganizational management and ethics” Philips et al. 2003 as cited in Beringer, Jonas, , 2012). The stakeholder theory assumes that a firm, represented by itsmanagement, has relationship with many groups of individuals in the firms andin its surroundings.
These groups play a critical role in the success of thefirm and have intrinsic value for all of interest stakeholder (Bringer et al,2012). Individualor group who can affect or affected by the goal of firms or organizations isstakeholder. To balance the conflicting needs and demands as well as to evolve themanner to handle the different demands of internal and external stakeholders isused stakeholder management (Fassin, 2012). Stakeholder behaviour must be understood to ensure thatstakeholder management is effective. Actual behaviour of stakeholders is declaredthrough connected interactions by researchers. Such stakeholders have capabilityto affect the others but organizations will be affected indirectly, stakeholderbehaviour can be explained through the position of stakeholder in a network,and stakeholder ability to affect depends on the interactions among the stakeholdersand conditional relation (Bringer et al., 2012).
On theother hand, in legitimacy theory, social contract is considered as expectationof society about how organization followed the conduct in their operation.Organization is expected to achieve all of conduct dealt with the expectationof the society. Stakeholder management is the core competence which become anintegral part of the culture of the organization (Minoja, 2012). Then stakeholder management also can result in a valuablecreation by the genuine ethical consideration of all stakeholders, or via apublic relations exercise: arguably in either case stakeholder management is apositive attainment. Schwartz (2006) informs that God is a managerial stakeholder. He supportedcriteria of Mitchell (1997) namely power, legitimacy and urgency.
Power is heldthrough powerful, practicable or normative arguments based on physicalresources or intangible (Fassin, 2012). Physical resources mean everything canwe see, feel or find, such as Allah created the sky and earth and change thedaylight and night (QS. 3-190), all of life source of water (QS.
21-30), themoon and sun circulates through the line of orbit (QS. 36-40), and the mountainare continuously run like the clouds (QS. 27-88). On the other hand, intangibleresources mean symbolic resources, like Allah have the great merit (QS. 5-105),the Possessor of judgment day (QS.
1-4), executor of everything by His ownaccount (QS. 11-107) and the Owner of punishment (QS. 3-4) Legitimacyis a common assumption that the activity of an entity is desirable within somesocially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs, definitions (Schwartz,2006). So that the believer of the God would assume that all activities arearranged by the God like a mother who must breastfeed her baby for two years(QS. 2-233), giving the basic necessities based on a person’s capabilities (QS.
65-7),everyone will be responsible his sins (QS.34-25; 39-7), the merit for thekindness is ten times but punishment for misdeed is balance with the falsity(QS. 6-160). Finally, it is very urgent, “The degree to which stakeholderclaims call for immediate attention”.
The believers convince that God alwayswatches and postpone the consequences for incompatible behaviour (Schwartz,2006). The call such as read al-quran (QS. 2-121), obey Allah, Prophet andleader (QS.
4-59), do fasting (shaum) (QS. 2-183), go to Makkah for Hajj andumr (QS. 3-97), and implement shalah and zakat (QS. 2-43) are commanded by Godand need immediate attention.