AIR authority framework. Generally positioned in airport regulation





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operation officer is responsible for all the major airports in Pakistan. He is
dealing these following:

CONTROLLER               He is responsible for landing, take off
and any maneuver on  ground.

CONTROLLER                    He is
responsible for arrival, departure transit.


CONTROLLER              He is responsible for arrival and


FLIGHT INFORMATION                        He is responsible for the
provision of flight plans.


PROCEDURE CONTROLLER                   He is responsible for area
radar and arrival departure procedures. It will also deal with current traffic
area radar is radar is off.

under chief operation officer comes



AIRSIDE : He was responsible for bird shotter and maintenance and he was under
COO but now he comes under airport manager.




Air activity
controllers are work force in charge of the protected, organized, and speedy
stream of air movement in the worldwide aviation authority framework. Generally
positioned in airport regulation focuses and control towers on the ground, they
screen the position, speed, and height of air ship in their allocated airspace
outwardly and by radar, and offer headings to the pilots by radio. The position
of air activity controller is one that requires exceptionally specific
learning, aptitudes, and capacities. Controllers apply detachment principles to
keep airplane at a sheltered separation from each other in their general
vicinity of duty and move all flying machine securely and productively through
their relegated part of airspace, and additionally on the ground. Since
controllers have a fantastically huge obligation while on obligation (regularly
in flight, “on position”) and set aside a few minutes choices once a
day, the ATC calling is reliably viewed far and wide as a standout amongst the
most rationally difficult vocations, and can be famously unpleasant relying
upon numerous factors.



In 1921, Croydon
Airport, London was the main airplane terminal on the planet to present air
movement control.


In the United States,
airport regulation created three divisions. The first of air mail radio
stations was made in 1922 after World War I when the U.S. Mail station started
utilizing methods created by the Army to direct and track the developments of
surveillance air ship. After some time, the AMRS transformed into flight
benefit stations. The present flight benefit stations don’t issue control
directions, yet furnish pilots with numerous other flight related instructive
administrations. They do transfer control guidelines from ATC in territories
where flight benefit is the main office with radio or telephone scope. The
principal air terminal activity control tower, managing landings, takeoffs and
surface development of airplane at airport, opened in Cleveland in 1930.
Approach/takeoff control offices were made after appropriation of radar in the
1950s to screen and control the bustling airspace around bigger air terminals.
The principal air course activity control focus, which coordinates the
development of flying machine amongst flight and goal was opened in Newark, NJ
in 1935, followed in 1936 by Chicago and Cleveland.


Navigation Aid Used by ATC:

Ground to air communication system

Very high omnidirectional range



Marker beacons





Ground to air communication system:

                         Correspondence amongst
pilots and air movement controllers takes

 put by means of radio gear ready to work in
the recurrence run 112– 156 MHz (VHF Civil Comms) and additionally 225– 400
MHz  (UHF Military Comms) with 25 kHz and
additionally 8.33 kHz of channel separating. The ground establishments can made
out of a few handsets which can deal with more than 50 frequencies

(transporters) freely.
Each radio connected with by the controller can transmit a bearer with an
ostensible RF energy of 50 W balanced in simple or advanced mode. For
dependability and wellbeing, the framework is typically as excess as could be
allowed, implying that a extensive number of radios might be required
notwithstanding for a little airport.


omnidirectional range:

VHF Omnidirectional Radio or VOR is a kind of short-extend radio route framework
for air ship. It empowers air ship to decide their position and remain on
course by getting radio motions in the recurrence extend 108– 117.950 MHz which
are transmitted by a system of settled ground radio reference points. It speaks
to a cutting edge contrasting option to NDBs. Dissimilar to NDBs, the VOR
transmits two flags: the ground station conveys an ace flag , and an
exceedingly directional second flag which differs in stage 30 times each second
contrasted with the master.


Marker beacons:

Marker Beacon is a specific sort of VHF radio reference point utilized as a
part of flight, ordinarily in conjunction with an Instrument Landing Framework
(ILS), to give pilots a way to decide their position along a built up course to
a goal, for example, a runway. It is arranged on a similar course/track as the
localizer also, the runway centreline, 4 to 7 nautical miles previously the
runway limit, and transmitts a transporter at 75 MHz.



Distance Measuring Equipment is a transponder-based


route innovation that measures incline run remove by timing the spread deferral
of RF radio signs. DME is regularly co-situated with VORs and its usefulness is
like optional radars, aside from in switch. DME transponders transmit on a
direct in the 962– 1213 MHz go and get on a comparing channel between 1025–
1150 MHz

non direction beacon :


Non-Directional (radio) Beacon is a radio transmitter at a referred to
location.It is utilized as a flying or marine navigational help. The NDB
transmits as its distinguishing proof flag a morse code in the long/medium wave
recurrence go (190– 1750 kHz) in all bearings. Because of its agent recurrence
go, NDB signals take after the ebb and flow of the earth, so they can be gotten
at significantly more prominent separations at bring down heights. The pilot
can assess his genuine position by methods for the on-board Automatic Heading
Finder (ADF).



Instrument Landing System comprises of two free sub-frameworks, one giving
parallel direction (Localizer – LOCwhat’s more, the other vertical direction
(Glide Slope or Glide PathGP) to the air ship that are moving toward a runway.
In both cases, two distinctive RF signals are transmitted balanced at  90 Hz and 150 Hz individually. The LOC is
ordinarily foundpast the flight end of the runway and by and large comprises of
a few sets of directional recieving wires working in the recurrence go 108.10–
111.95 MHz, while the GP is a radio wire cluster arranged to the other side of
the runway touchdown zone and working in the recurrence scope of 328.6– 335.4


is a key detail within the presentATC system, and advances in
communicationtechnology may open new alternatives for configuringthe device in
the destiny. traditionally,voice radio has been the primary and nearly
exclusivemeans of speaking among aircraftand the ground. virtual verbal
exchange—the transmission of records in the shape of machinereadablebinary
indicators—has come into use forlinking ground stations (in particular for
computer-to-laptopinterchanges), but it has notyet been carried out for
air-ground messages, exceptin the constrained case of transmitting aircraft
identificationand altitude through ATCRBS the destiny, it is
predicted that an airgroundvirtual information hyperlink will play an
increasingly morecrucial position because the automation of ATC functionscalls
for more direct conversation betweenairborne and ground-based totally
computers.every other crucial advantage of the virtualfacts link is that it allows
messages to be transmittedselectively. the existing voice-radiomethod is
broadcast—i. e., available to any andall aircraft prepared with the ideal
receiver,no matter the intended recipient. This”party line” function has sure
advantages, considering the fact thatit lets in pilots to increase a sense of
what’soccurring inside the surrounding airspace. however,a “discrete address”
era that allowsmessages to be despatched to a specific recipientmay be extra
powerful than broadcast for proceduresthat require pc-to-laptop verbal
exchange.that is the underlying principle othe Mode S records hyperlink
(previously the Discrete addressBeacon device, or DABS), that’s an
criticalconstructing block in FAA’s plans for destinygadget the
future, with the creation of a digitalstatistics hyperlink capable of selective
address,  awesomemodes of verbal exchange
can be expected.Broadcast, the mode now used, will preserve forvoice or digital
transmissions of preferred hobby,which includes climate, airport repute, and
traffic advisories.other transmissions, pertinent simplest tounique aircraft,
will be despatched by way of a discreteaddressdigital records link that permits
isolation ofunique receiving stations.

Structure (Leading):



operation officer is responsible for all the major airports in Pakistan. He is
dealing these following:

CONTROLLER               He is responsible for landing, take off
and any maneuver on  ground.

CONTROLLER                    He is
responsible for arrival, departure transit.


CONTROLLER              He is responsible for arrival and


FLIGHT INFORMATION                        He is responsible for
the provision of flight plans.


PROCEDURE CONTROLLER                   He is responsible for area
radar and arrival departure procedures. It will also deal with current traffic
area radar is radar is off.

under chief operation officer comes



AIRSIDE : He was responsible for bird shotter and maintenance and he was under
COO but now he comes under airport manager.


Head Quater

quarter of air traffic controlling consist of main three officers the head of
this is deputy director general of air navigation services. It is dealing the whole
Pakistan air traffic controllers and head of all the controllers present in




this comes the chief operation officer who is the head of all the major
airports like Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore airport. Under him comes

controller, area controller, approach controller, area procedure controller,
radar facility chief and facility training officer.



an effort to accomplish the goals of protection, performance,and
price-effective operation, the existingATC gadget gives the subsequent
offerings to theaviation network:

guarantee—tracking plane inflight, often with surveillance radars onthe floor
and airborne transponders, inorder to make sure that ok separation ismaintained
and to detect and solve conflictsas they stand up;

aids—preserving a machine ofdescribed airways and aids to navigation andsetting
up approaches for their use;climate and flight statistics— informingusers of
the situations that may be predictedalongside the meant route so they may plan
asafe and green flight;

and flight information— informing users of the conditions that may be expected
along the intended route so they may plan a safe and efficient flight;

management-processing and comparing the flight plans, distributing flight plans
to allow controllers to keep track of intended routes and anticipate potential
conflicts, and ensuring the smooth and efficient flow of traffic in order to
minimize costly congestion and delays;

landing services-operating airport control towers; instrument landing systems,
and other aids that facilitate the movement of air traffic in the vicinity of
airports and runways, particularly during peak periods or bad weather that
might affect safety or capacity.



services collectively include an incorporatedsoftware, no part of which can be
fully effectivewith out the others. Flight plans should take intoaccount
weather and visitors, for example, andsite visitors have to be routed to
destinations in order that itarrives on time and may be treated on the
airportwith no less than put off. further, clearancesmust be modified so that
visitors can be routedround intense weather or away from bottlenecksthat
develop in the system. In a practicalexperience, the aircrew and ground controllers
cooperateas a crew using numerous human and electronicsources to hold
protection and to transportvisitors expeditiously. whilst the closing dutyfor
protection of flight rests with the pilot, hestays dependent in lots of
approaches on records or choicesfrom the ground.



are geared up to board the flight!” With excited

passengers arrive at the airport terminal totake a look at their baggage. at
the equal time the flight group isalready checking the aircraft to be sure it is
ready to fly.based totally on the weather for that day, the pilot will plan
thefirst-class and maximum efficient route and altitude for the flight.
Thepilot’s flight plan is then communicated to a controller whotests visitors
alongside that path to look if the request can begranted. Having the flight
information in advance of time,

controllers can competently guide the flight from one cityto every other.while
passengers locate their seats and stow their carry-onbags, the pilot starts
offevolved the radio communication with thetower. The cockpit flight group
informs the controller,placed within the tower cab, that they’re approximately
ready to beginthe flight. The controller will manual the aircraft from thegate
along the taxiways to the runway.


the stop of the runway, the tower controller tells the pilotclose to the
airport. whilst the pilot radios for permission

take off, the controller visually tests the runways andsurrounding place for
different visitors that might be inside the manner.while the controller
determines that the runway location is apparent, the pilot is permitted to taxi
onto the runway andtake off.The airplane will begin to circulate down the
runway, and whenit reaches a selected speed, it’ll raise off the floor.Passengers
can also sense like they may be being pushed back intheir seat as the airplane
speeds up. they’ll additionally listenthe touchdown equipment rumble as it
retracts into the airplane’swheel wells. Now airborne, the plane is on its way
toits vacation spot. At this factor, the controller tells the pilotto, “contact
Departure control.”


at the ants!” as the airplane climbs to its assignedaltitude, you could see the
earth beneath and maybe even theclouds above. The vehicles at the highways look
like theyare tiny ants slowly crawling alongside. The homes appear
likeminiature houses.At this factor of the flight passengers are settling in to
read,take a sleep, or just relax, but, this is a completely busy timefor the
pilots. The pilots have to listen carefully to thecommands from ATC whilst
flying the plane andmonitoring all its gauges and instruments.The TRACON
controller responsible for this section of flightis referred to as the
departure controller. This controller uses allthe information at the radarscope
to safely manual the flight thru TRACON airspace. because the aircraft climbs
higher,departure manage may supply the pilots a brand new compassheading or
altitude trade to keep away from different planeor risks.once the flight
reaches the outer limits of the TRACONairspace, the departure controller passes
the flight onto the En course middle. The controller will then say”contact

directionThe aircraft might also nevertheless be hiking to an altitude of
over30,000 toes while it enters En route middle airspace. Atsome point
throughout the flight segment, the plane will attainits assigned altitude. If a
passenger goes to be servedwhatever to consume or drink, that is the time on
the way to show up.The captain may additionally flip off the seat belt sign so
passengerscan move approximately and stretch their legs.Like TRACON
controllers, En course middle controllerssong airplane radar objectives and
information blocks. The centermay additionally inform the pilot approximately
any giant weather which includethunderstorms or turbulence alongside the way.
If it becomesnecessary, the controller will request that the pilots adjusttheir
flight’s altitude, velocity, or path to keep away from climateor other
airplanes. The airplane is quietly exceeded from onecontroller to the next as
the flights progresses in the direction of it’ssupposed destination




“Fasten Seat Belt” sign is became on when theairplane is ready 200 miles from
its destination, because the pilotprepares to descend. a few passengers may
additionally experience a touch likethey’re floating of their seat for a second
as the airplanestarts offevolved to descend for its arrival on the
airport.about 50 miles from the airport, the radar manageis exceeded directly
to the TRACON and the controller tells thepilot to “contact method control.”


 The aircraft isentering TRACON airspace
whichis shaped like an the wrong way upwedding cake (see diagram at theright).
This time it’s the techniqueController who courses theaircraft closer to the
runway.The approach controller will direct the pilot to progressivelylower the
airplane’s altitude. The pilot may additionally make numerousturns until the
aircraft is coated up with the middle of therunway. working on this airspace is
not any ‘piece of cake’ forpilots and controllers, as airplanes fly at quickly
changingairspeeds and altitudes. The technique controller often hasan extended
line of airplanes descending in sequence fortouchdown. In truth, this line of
airplanes within the sky may additionally make biggerout 50 miles or more!
whilst the airplane is set 10 milesfrom the airport, the pilot is instructed to
“contact Tower.”
















Take off

1. Airliner bring flight plan to tower for

2. Assistant bring flight progress strip having all
the details of flight to the controller.

3. Pilot ask for take off clearance from,

Approach control for,       

Sid OR Star                                                    

Area control for,

Route Level


1. Airliner bring flight plan.

2. Flight progress strip same as departure.

3. Estimate arrival time.

4. Radar vecting.

5. Taxing.

6. Parking.


(All done by ATC planning)



Let the pilot be aware about all restrictions.

Making aircraft to taxi. (RWR clear,
bird activity, visibility)

Aerodrome controller. (approach

Conditions for take off. (level,




control/ Air control

& Terminal Control

Purpose of ATC:

– Conflict Avoidance – Separation of Aircraft

Flight Rules

Flight Rules

– Flow control




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