According to waste prevention directive 2008/98/EC
Art.3 (“Definitions”), par. 9 waste management means the collection, transport,
recovery, and disposal of waste, including the supervision of such operations
and after-care of disposal sites, and including actions taken as a dealer or
Solid waste management systems need to ensure human
health and safety. Also, these systems must be safe for all workers and
safeguard public health by preventing the spread of disease. Furthermore,
addition to these requirements, a sustainable system for solid waste management
must be environmentally effective, economically affordable and socially
Environmentally effective: the waste
management system should minimize as much as possible the environmental burdens
of waste management (emissions to land, air, and water)
affordable: the waste management
system should operate at a cost-effectively, which includes all stakeholder. However,
the costs of operating of waste management system will depend on the income
level of the country, state or region. But probably it should be less or no
more than current waste management costs.
acceptable: the waste management
system must operate in a manner that is acceptable for the majority of
stakeholders in the society.
The Waste Hierarchy sets out a hierarchy of options
for managing waste in terms of minimize non-renewable resource depletion,
improve air and water quality, to build up greener economy and as a solution
for the climate change.
According to EU directive 2008/98/EC Art.4
(“Definitions”), par. 1 sets out five steps for dealing with waste in priority
Figure 1.2 Waste
hierarchy (Source: http://calderdale.objective.co.uk/events/15207/popimage_d912602e540.html
waste management system
The waste management hierarchy is critically
discussed, and in its place is suggested a holistic approach that assesses the
overall environmental burdens and economic costs of the whole system.
et.al 2001 defined as integrated
waste management (IWM) systems combining with waste generation streams, waste
collection and waste treatment and disposal methods, with the objective of
achieving environmental bene?ts, economic optimization and societal acceptability.
The Key features of IWM are:
An overall approach
Uses a range of
collection and treatment methods
materials in the waste stream
Waste is a steady product from around the world.
Primarily solid waste management practices were developed to minimize and avoid
the deleterious effects on public health that were being caused by the
increasing amounts of solid waste being disposed of without proper collection
or disposal method. Now a day’s society needs to address waste management more
effectively because, waste becoming the severe problem whole over the world.
Figure 1.3 the
respective roles of Waste Prevention and Integrated Waste Management. In life
cycle studies, a ‘system’ is de?ned (with boundaries indicated by broken
lines). Energy and raw materials from the ‘environment’ are used in the system.
Emissions, including solid waste, leave the system and enter the environment
(Source: F.R. McDougall, P.R. White, M. Franke, P. Hindle, “Integrated Solid
Waste Management: A Life Cycle Inventory”, 2nd Edition, 2001)