AbstractThis Edgar & Synder Associates). Usage of cellphone

  AbstractThis
research paper is an in-depth study which links the usage of cellphone while
driving to the accidents and fatality rate in developing countries. Due to the
emergence of smartphones and high dependability on cellphones and gadgets to
carry on with the daily affairs, the risk associated with the cellphone usage
while driving has also increased twofold. This research papers covers that in
detail and serves as a guide for the teenage students and teachers.                                                                         

   Chapter
1: Introduction Hypothesis:The pattern of utilizing
cell telephones amid driving is expanding enormously. Usage of cellphones while
driving can cause lethal accidents and disrupt traffic. Traffic regulation
authorities have been trying to create an awareness among all age groups
regarding the repercussions of cellphone usage while driving. . Casual driving
attitudes of teenagers and many adults have very often become a reason for
street accidents and mishaps.  According
to a report, 660000 people across United States tend to use cellphone everyday
while driving in day time.
Edgar
& Synder Associates). Usage of cellphone is very distracting and there are many
people who are not very good at multi-tasking. This raises the risk of
accidents while driving. This research intends to prove that usage of cellphone
while driving increases the probability and risk factor of accident occurring
while driving.     Research
Questions:Q1.What is the duration
of a common phone call on cellphones while driving?Q2. What percentage of
people use cellphone in a developed country like United States?Q3 How risky is the usage
of cellphone while driving?  Objectives:
The
proportion of people owning cellphones has been increasing across the globe.
Advancements in telecommunications technology and the decreasing cost of
cellphone production has welcomed many new players in the cellphone industry.
Across the globe, number of people owning cellphones has increased by 16
percent between 2013 and 2017 alone (Statistica). And the proportion is
expected to increase by 6 percent by 2019. This makes it  obvious that number of people using cellphone
while driving is projected to increase as well. This research seeks to create
an awareness among all concerned age groups regarding the repercussions of
cellphone usage while driving. In third world countries like Pakistan, there
are not sufficient resources available to traffic authorities in the launching
of massive awareness campaigns. Due to this, many people in such countries
don’t even understand the risk associated. Another objective then, of this
research is to create awareness among people of such countries.This
research also seeks to convince government officials of such countries to
launch awareness campaigns and also regulate the usage of cellphone while
driving. Chapter
2: Literature Review RQ1: What can help
address the problem of cellphone usage while driving? The problem of cellphone
usage can be addressed in various different ways. People should look forward to
this thing that talking on cellphone can be really dangerous and life taking
process while one is driving. So media should be used to cover up for this kind
of behaviors of people. Moreover government should take steps to ensure the
safety of people by making them realize on frequent basis that using cellphones
while driving can cause serious accidents leading to deaths. Laws should be
made and strict penalties should be applied so that people should pay attention
to the laws and they don’t go wandering off in different directions (Anon,
2018). The methods that can be
used to prevent this usage are something like this that voicemail feature
should be enabled in the cellphones of people so that the caller gets a message
that the person is driving and is not available.  Cellphone pullovers should be introduced on
roads also as they are on airports. This way the person who is receiving a call
can pullover and see that who is calling and if he has to talk to that person
he should talk and without any kind of interference do his job also like this.
Sometimes carpooling can be a beneficial idea, this way when one person is
driving then the other person could easily talk on mobile and likewise when the
other person needs to talk they can stop the car and switch paces this way both
of them can easily carry out their business and without the break in the
journey. Mass transit can also be used in this way that people can do there
yapping on mobile phone and there is one single designated driver for the
purpose. Is noise becomes the issue then texting can be used and either way
people can use cellphones while travelling. There are many kind of software’s
in the market that can do the function for the driver, for example a driver can
use a Bluetooth hands free or car’s Bluetooth when he is starting the journey
and when a call comes he can easily pick up the call without getting distracted
and this way he can easily talk while driving with having his both of the hands
free for only the purpose of driving. Likewise there are different software’s
that may be able to generate automatic replies or different call diverting
features so that the driver is not interrupted while driving and likewise a
smooth drive is ensured this way. So using these methods safety of the driver
can be ensured and accident risks can be reduced (Anon, 2018).   RQ 2: What percentage of
people use cellphone in a developed country like United States? In the developed
countries this should be kept in mind that people tend to rely on social media
and or mass media for information and communication and thus this thing has
caused a surge in the number of cellphone usage also among the developed
countries and since the year 2000 there has been a surge of around 1700%
(seventeen hundred percent) in the usage of cell in the developed countries.
And it is an alarming rise in the number of cellphone users even for a
developed countries. This rise in cellphone usage can be equally and easily
linked with the usage of internet among the developed countries. This thing
should not be forgotten that people tend to use google maps or apple maps to
find a certain location when they are driving. This can then also be concluded
that people use smart phones over basic cellphones the reason being high specs
and different versions of the applications. Moreover while driving posting a
selfie is considered to be cool among the new generation thus we can see that
due to these reason there is a dramatic increase in the number of cellphone
users in the last two decades (Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project,
2018).  RQ3:  How risky is the usage of cellphone while
driving? The usage of cellphone
while driving is considered to be a risky business as it may cause accidents
leading to death. Risk of crash is substantially increased while using a
cellphone. The usage of cellphone while driving is also linked with this fact
that property is also damaged in this kind of activity. Studies say that using
a cellphone while driving is equally dangerous as being drunk and driving and
this should be enough a proof that how dangerous this activity can be not for
the person but for the people around him or her also. People using cellphone
while driving has their reaction time delayed and more kind of traffic
accidents happened. Studies also suggest this thing that people who use
cellphones while driving are more attentive towards what they are hearing as
compared to paying attention on the road and this way they tend to end up in
more kind of accidents as they have focus on the thing they are listening to as
compared to on the road. Also, utilizing a cellphone makes impedance on our
fringe vision, like steed signals, rendering us incognizant in regards to
objects we would typically experience no difficulty seeing (for instance, a
youngster in a crosswalk). Maples and partners estimated visual fields on think
about members when they were having a cellphone discussion and when they were
definitely not. They discovered more noteworthy general choking between the
visual field isopters plotted amid cellphone utilize contrasted and no
cellphone utilize. No doubt our mind initiates neurons for exercises that
require our consideration, for example, having a cellphone discussion, despite
the fact that we don’t know this is happening. Substantial quantities of
individuals utilize cellphones while driving and the numbers keep on
increasing. The most recent investigations demonstrate that 8% of drivers
utilize a cellphone while driving. Drivers on mobile phones will have driving
capacity like an alcoholic driver and won’t have the capacity to see protests
in their fringe vision. What’s more, these drivers will be four times more
prone to be in an auto collision than drivers not utilizing a cellphone
(Bcmj.org, 2018). Cell phone utilize while driving is normal, yet it is broadly
viewed as risky because of its potential for causing occupied driving and mischances.
Because of the quantity of mischances that are identified with directing
approaches a telephone and messaging while at the same time driving, a few
wards have made the utilization of approaching a telephone while driving
unlawful. Numerous wards have established laws to boycott handheld cell phone
utilize. By the by, numerous wards permit utilization of a sans hands gadget.
Driving while at the same time utilizing a sans hands gadget isn’t more secure
than utilizing a handheld telephone to lead calls, as finished up by
case-hybrid investigations, epidemiological, reenactment, and meta-examination.
Sometimes confinements are coordinated just at minors, the individuals who are
recently qualified permit holders (of all ages), or to drivers in school zones.
Notwithstanding voice calling, exercises, for example, messaging while at the
same time driving, web perusing, playing computer games, or telephone use as a
rule can likewise build the danger of a mishap (Bcmj.org, 2018).    Chapter
3: Data collection and analysis  Methodology:Our research is of
qualitative nature. We collected our data from online resources and along that
we got a questionnaire filled by 25 people. The sample contained subjects aging
from around 18 years old to 35 years old and all of the subjects were regular
drivers. The questions cover the information regarding driving behavior and
patterns of the subjects. The questions asked and the responses of all the
subjects are displayed below.            1)    How
old are you?  

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32 percent of the subjects were reported to be around
18-22 years old in age. 40 percent of the individuals were 22-28 years old in
age, 16 percent were around 28-30 years old while 12 percent were 30-35 years
old.     2)    Do
you use your cellphone during driving? 

An overwhelming 60 percent of the
respondents said that they do use their cellphones while driving, 20 percent
stated that they never use cellphone while driving while equally 20 percent of
them stated that they do use their cellphones while driving but not very
frequently.    3)    Have
you ever have had to face any inconvenience because of cellphone  usage during driving? 

 Around 48 percent of the respondents stated that they
had to face inconvenience like minor and major accidents and traffic jams due
to their habit of cellphone usage while driving. 32 percent stated that they
never had to face any problem due to their cellphone habit while 20 percent of
them stated that had to face the nuisance sometimes but not very often.   4)    Do
you consider your habit of cellphone usage during driving to be harmful?

68 percent of the subjects reported that
they consider their habit of cellphone usage during driving to be harmful while
the rest of 32 percent stated that they don’t consider it dangerous.     5)    How
often do you fail to abide by the traffic signals because of the distraction
caused by cellphone usage?

56 percent of the respondents claimed that they fail
to abide by the traffic signals due to cellphone usage. 24 percent of them
stated that they do violate the traffic signals due to their habit but not very
frequently while the rest 20 percent claim they never violated a traffic signal
because of cellphone usage.    6)    Were
you ever issued a violation ticket by a traffic warden due to your usage of
cellphone while driving?

64 percent of the respondents claimed that they were
never issued a traffic violation ticket by a warden due to cellphone usage
while driving and the rest of 36 percent stated otherwise.     7)    Do
you think law regarding usage of cellphone while driving needs to be enforced
more effectively?

76 percent people said that they do
believe that traffic laws regarding cellphone usage need to be enforced more
effectively and properly. Remaining 24 percent believe that law enforcement is
fine enough.      Chapter
4: Discussion The issue of cellphone
utilization can be tended to in different distinctive ways. Individuals should
anticipate this thing that chatting on cellphone can be extremely unsafe and
life taking procedure while one is driving. So media ought to be utilized to conceal
for this sort of practices of individuals. Additionally government should find
a way to guarantee the wellbeing of individuals by influencing them to
acknowledge on visit premise that utilizing cellphones while driving can cause
genuine mishaps prompting passings. Laws ought to be made and strict
punishments ought to be connected so individuals should focus on the laws and
they don’t go straying in various ways (Delgado, Wanner and McDonald, 2016). The strategies that can
be utilized to keep this utilization are something like this that voice message
highlight ought to be empowered in the cellphones of individuals so the guest
gets a message that the individual is driving and isn’t accessible. Cellphone
pullovers ought to be presented on streets additionally as they are on airplane
terminals. Thusly the individual who is getting a call would pullover be able
to and see that who is calling and in the event that he needs to converse with
that individual he should talk and with no sort of impedance carry out his
activity likewise like this. Now and again carpooling can be a useful thought,
along these lines when one individual is driving then the other individual
could undoubtedly chat on versatile and in like manner when the other
individual needs to talk they can stop the auto and switch paces thusly them
two can without much of a stretch do their business and without the break in
the trip. Mass travel can likewise be utilized as a part of thusly that
individuals can do there yapping on cell phone and there is one single assigned
driver for the reason (Delgado, Wanner and McDonald, 2016). Is commotion turns
into the issue then messaging can be utilized and whichever way individuals can
utilize cellphones while voyaging. There are numerous sort of programming’s in
the market that can do the capacity for the driver, for instance a driver can
utilize a Bluetooth hands free or auto’s Bluetooth when he is beginning the journey
and when a call comes he can undoubtedly get the call without getting diverted
and along these lines he can without much of a stretch talk while driving with
having his both of the hands free for just the motivation behind driving. In
like manner there are diverse programming’s that might have the capacity to
create programmed answers or distinctive call occupying highlights so the
driver isn’t hindered while driving and in like manner a smooth drive is
guaranteed along these lines (Kwon, Yoon and Jang, 2014). So utilizing these
techniques wellbeing of the driver can be guaranteed and mishap dangers can be
lessened. In the developed nations this ought to be remembered that individuals
have a tendency to depend via web-based networking media and additionally broad
communications for data and correspondence and along these lines this thing has
caused a surge in the quantity of cellphone use likewise among the created
nations and since the year 2000 there has been a surge of around 1700%
(seventeen hundred percent) in the utilization of cell in the created nations.
What’s more, it is a disturbing ascent in the quantity of cellphone clients
notwithstanding for a created nations. This ascent in cellphone use can be
similarly and effectively connected with the use of web among the created
nations. This thing ought not be overlooked that individuals tend to utilize
google maps or apple maps to locate a specific area when they are driving. This
would then be able to likewise be inferred that individuals utilize advanced
cells over essential cellphones the reason being high specs and diverse
adaptations of the applications. Additionally while driving posting a selfie is
thought to be cool among the new age therefore we can see that because of these
reason there is an emotional increment in the quantity of cellphone clients
over the most recent two decades. The utilization of cellphone while driving is
thought to be a hazardous business as it might cause mischances prompting
demise . Danger of crash is considerably expanded while utilizing a cellphone.
The use of cellphone while driving is additionally connected with this reality
that property is likewise harmed in this sort of action. Studies say that
utilizing a cellphone while driving is similarly unsafe as being tanked and
driving and this ought to be sufficient a proof that how risky this action can
be not for the individual but rather for the general population around him or
her moreover. Individuals utilizing cellphone while driving has their response
time deferred and more sort of car crashes happened. Concentrates likewise
propose this thing that individuals who utilize cellphones while driving are
more mindful towards what they are hearing when contrasted with focusing out
and about and along these lines they tend to wind up in more sort of mishaps as
they have concentrate on the thing they are tuning in to when contrasted with
out and about. Likewise, using a cellphone influences impedance on our
periphery vision, to like steed signals, rendering us incognizant concerning
objects we would normally encounter no trouble seeing (for example, an adolescent
in a crosswalk). Maples and accomplices assessed visual fields on consider
individuals when they were having a cellphone discourse and when they were
unquestionably not. They found more imperative general gagging between the
visual field isopters plotted in the midst of cellphone use differentiated and
no cellphone use. Presumably our mind starts neurons for practices that require
our thought, for instance, having a cellphone talk, in spite of the way that we
don’t have the foggiest idea about this is going on (Carpenter and Nguyen,
2014). Generous amounts of people use cellphones while driving and the numbers
continue expanding. The latest examinations show that 8% of drivers use a
cellphone while driving. Drivers on cell phones will have driving limit like a
heavy drinker driver and won’t have the ability to see dissents in their
periphery vision. Likewise, these drivers will be four times more inclined to
be in a car crash than drivers not using a cellphone. Mobile phone use while
driving is typical, yet it is extensively seen as dangerous as a result of its
potential for causing possible driving and setbacks. As a result of the amount
of incidents that are related to coordinating methodologies a phone and
informing while in the meantime driving, a couple of wards have made the usage
of moving toward a phone while driving unlawful. Various wards have built up
laws to blacklist handheld wireless use. Coincidentally, various wards allow
usage of a sans hands device. Driving while in the meantime using a sans hands
device isn’t more secure than using a handheld phone to lead calls, as
completed up by case-crossover examinations, epidemiological, reenactment, and
meta-examination. Some of the time repressions are facilitated exactly at
minors, the people who are as of late qualified allow holders (of any age), or
to drivers in school zones. Despite voice calling, works out, for instance,
informing while in the meantime driving, web scrutinizing, playing PC
amusements, or phone use when in doubt can in like manner fabricate the peril
of an accident.   ConclusionCell
telephone use amid driving is a reason behind street mishaps. Law Enforcement
Agencies are attempting their best to control street mishaps. Introduction of
E-Tracking gadgets would help in regulation of traffic laws and help control
traffic related accidents. It would check the special treatment given to the
VIPs. Solid
guidelines for issuing driving  license
to adolescents would likewise help in checking mishaps. It would help
adolescents in getting to be develop drivers. Guidelines and regulations are in
place yet they need further changes. Government is attempting to enhance the
usage of law and it appears the Government will help decrease the proportion of
mischances which happens because of use of cell telephone amid driving.              References: Bcmj.org. (2018). The dangers of driving and talking
on the cellphone | BC Medical Journal. online Available at: http://www.bcmj.org/council-health-promotion/dangers-driving-and-talking-cellphone
Accessed 21 Jan. 2018.Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project.
(2018). 1. Communications Technology in Emerging and Developing Nations.
online Available at: http://www.pewglobal.org/2015/03/19/1-communications-technology-in-emerging-and-developing-nations/
Accessed 21 Jan. 2018.Anon, (2018). online Available at:
http://www.slate.com/news-and-politics/2018/01/the-rationale-behind-republicans-shithole-cover-up.html
Accessed 21 Jan. 2018.Kwon, O., Yoon, Y. and Jang, K. (2014). Evaluating the
effectiveness of the law banning handheld cellphone use while driving. Safety
Science, 70, pp.50-57.Delgado, M., Wanner, K. and McDonald, C. (2016).
Adolescent Cellphone Use While Driving: An Overview of the Literature and
Promising Future Directions for Prevention. Media and Communication, 4(3),
p.79.Carpenter, C. and Nguyen, H. (2014). Effects of a
Driver Cellphone Ban on Overall, Handheld, and Hands-Free Cellphone Use While
Driving: New Evidence from Canada. Health Economics, 24(11), pp.1452-1467.