Abstract: on the proposed advancements and the progress

Abstract:

With the increasing urban population,
corporate offices, malls there is a subsequent increase in traffic congestion.
It is always a challenging task to work on the smart parking. Thanks to the
evolving technologies, parking facilities have been advanced. The existing
works on smart parking are not transparent. Many advanced solutions on multiple
issues regarding the parking problems have been proposed, while some are being
implemented. To provide a clear overview on the proposed advancements and the
progress regarding the smart parking, we provide literature over the past and
present advancements and summarize the existing techniques and throw wide open
our insights regarding the efficiency of the technologies in use. Our paper
provides an all-inclusive insight into the smart parking besides throwing wide
open future research opportunities in the smart parking domain.

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 On average, 30 percent of traffic is caused by
drivers wandering around for parking spaces 3. In 2006, a study in France
revealed an estimation that 70 million hours were spent every year in France
only in searching for parking which resulted in the loss of 700 million Euros
annually 4. In 2011, a global parking survey by IBM 5 stated that 20
minutes are spent on average in searching for a coveted spot. With these
statistics, we can predict that a great portion of global pollution and fuel
waste is related to cruising for parking 6.

 

 

Smart parking:

In the ever
running hectic schedule people are finding it frustrating to waste their
essential time searching for free parking lots. So if drivers can have
real-time parking availability information, they will be able plan accordingly
and stop cruising their vehicles all around the parking areas in vain. So there
is a need to assuage the search time, reduce pollution caused due to emission
of greenhouse gases by the vehicles and reduce fuel consumption through
efficient parking system.

 

The solution
lies in smart parking system. It helps to Share the information prior through
technology and alleviate the traffic congestion. Once the traffic is free
flowing it also contributes to the increase in traffic mobility easing the
process for the transportation facilities.

CLASSIFICATION OF
PARKING SYSTEMS

 

A.  Centralized assisted parking search

 

In Centralized assisted
parking search the central server takes provides the information to the
patrons. Sensors present in the parking lots detect the presence of vehicles
and the corresponding information regarding availability of free slots is
maintained by the server.

B.  Non-assisted parking search

 

The Non-assisted parking
search do not rely on the technology. Users does not receive any data. The user
has to cruise his vehicle all around the parking lots searching for a free slot.
The first user to reach a vacant parking slot gets the opportunity.

 

C.  Opportunistically assisted parking search
(OAPS)

 

There is a new approach
called opportunistically assisted parking search (OAPS), which uses a Mobile
Storage Node (MSN). The information flow is made with this MSN. This leads to
increase further through its efficiency.

 

D.  Parking Guidance and Information System
(PGIS)

 

In PGI systems the patrons receive information about
the availability of parking spaces areas through Virtual Message Signs (VMS) on
the road or through the internet.

A PGI system typically consists of 4 main components:
parking monitoring mechanism, parking space information dissemination, telecommunications
network and control center.

PGI systems use bar-code machines to count vehicles making
an entry or leaving a particular parking area. The major drawback in this
system is that the availability is not made sure to the driver. Whereas some PGI
systems vehicle detection and scrutiny use sensors or cameras by placing them
in the parking area.

 

 

 

 

 

E.    
Transit Based Information System (TBIS)

 

The Transit based
information system (TBIS) provides guidance for park-and-ride facilities 5,
6. This system succeeds in implementing, and it reduces the inconvenience of
the users.

 

Conventional methods such
as payment through parking meter where cash counters are placed require a lot
of maintenance and staff for handling efficiently. Smart payment systems
provide the best solution to the existing problem. Using RFID technologies the
payment is made by Automated Vehicle Identification (AVI) tag. This RFID
technology and mobile devices are contact less methods where cards can be
recharged periodically. Also there are contact methods which include smart cards,
debit cards and credit cards, which patrons are more prone to use daily.
However the main concern lies in in security and privacy issues because all the
details regarding the patron are shared on to a database which can be exploited.
Therefore particular measures have to be taken for secure transactions.

 

G.    Automated
Parking

 

In this system the drivers
take the cars to the bay, safely lock them and allow the Computer controlled
mechanism to safely park the car. This system places the car in its allocated
space by computer-controlled docks/lifts and sometimes user participation is
required. These type of parking can be efficiently used in areas where parking
areas do not have the scope for expansion and it allows car stacking. Besides this
it also important to ensure that the vehicle remains safe and secure without
any damages considering the slightest scratches. The systems have to design
perfectly so that it ensures all kinds of security measures. If there is any malfunction
in these computer controlled machines it leads to loss of vehicles. An
introduction of three-level software design which includes: Logical Layer (LL),
Safety Layer (SL) and Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) to implement the correct
and efficient storage of vehicles in a safe manner.

 

H.  
E-Parking

 

E-Parking provides scope
for the patron to know the availability of vacancy spot prior to reaching the
destination SMS or the internet is used for efficient E-parking.

While patron looks for the
availability of parking space the algorithm searches for the shortest distance
to find the nearest parking area and checks for the availability there. Including
smart payment system mechanism make sit more efficient as the patron can book
the parking slot even before reaching the destination.. For reservation
mechanism mobile phones or reservation centers are used. Wireless Application
Protocol (WAP) enabled mobile phones 9, and Personal Digital Assistants
(PDAs) are also used by this system 10.

 

I.     Car
Park Occupancy Information System

 

Video sensors are used in this system for
vehicle detection. The image processing techniques are used to detect the
vehicles and the display board displays the count of vehicles. This may not be efficient
as compared to others. But this helps to organize the cars, trucks, and lighter
vehicles by image processing techniques and segregate them and allot a separate
areas for a particular type of vehicles.

When the occupancy status changes, a sensor can detect a
vehicle’s presence or absence and updates the information in a short time

 

SFpark 4, in San Francisco,
allows that 85% of events are received within 60 seconds on large-scale
roadside parking sensor networks. The latter takes advantage of the vehicle’s
mobility to collect information along the route with fewer sensors. Mobile
sensors can detect the occupancy status when they pass through a parking space

 

 

J.     Parking
Reservation System (PRS)

 

Reservation system would require the between
the users and the PRS. Real time monitoring of the vacancy and the demand based
anticipation are the key features in this system. The anticipated demand depends
on the number of people who have already booked the slot and the expected
number of non-reserved arrivals during the next few time periods that could be
based on historical arrival data. The users can reserve though SMS or the
online websites or the apps, where they would receive the allotment details
upon payment.

 

K. 
Intelligent Transport System (ITS)

 

ITS systems are a set of information,
communications and technologies for vehicles and infrastructures focused on the
transport 13. The information can be offered by an accurate vehicle
classification using WSNs.

 

L.   
Intelligent Parking Assist System (IPAS)

 

Driver attention free system which helps
the car to be parked. This system was designed for reverse parallel parking. It
can automatically place the car by guiding the vehicle appropriately. This
system is also known as Advanced Parking Guidance System (APGS).

 

M. 
App based parking assist
system

 

Patrons use an app in
smartphone to find the availability of parking slot. Parking sensors are
connected to nearby multi-service parking meters. But most of the patrons aren’t
satisfied with this as there would be a disadvantage to non-smartphone users. So,
Non-smartphone users can pay their parking spaces, get current parking availability
in the city, and obtain tourism or public transportation information simply by
multi-service parking meters. The total implementation cost of the system is
estimated at 15 million euros.