ABSTRACT For business owners to remain competitive in today’sscenario, it is necessary to understand and adapt with the changing marketsituations. The growing use of internet and online buying among consumers havewidened the base of E-commerce market especially in B2C segment. If E-marketersare well versed with the Web based factors influencing the behavior of onlineconsumers, they can formulate their marketing strategies as per the needs andrequirements of the customers. This paper focuses on review of literaturerelated to the web based factors affecting online shopping. The results showedthat perceived ease of usefulness, online trust, risk perception, convenience,reliability, security of transactions, internet functionality had a positiveimpact on the creation of positive intention of consumers. Comparison ofcompetitor’s prices, shortage of time and wide assortment of products availableonline were some other factors that have a significant positive influence ononline shopping behavior.
Keywords: E-commerce, E-marketers, consumers etc. “Increase in the adoption and penetration of the Internethas turned the online marketplace into an important distribution andcommunication channel where consumers and businesses interact with each other.”Since the advent of Internet enabled e-commerce, online sales have attractedan increasing share of overall sales revenues” (Van der Meer, Dutta and Datta,2012). “The Internet and virtual technologies created a new and unprecedentedenvironment for governments, businesses, educational institutions, andindividuals enabling them to webcast any information using multimedia tools. Weare seeing a proliferation of websites with enormous amount of information”.(Hassan & Abuelrub, 2008).
“Purchase behaviour on the Internet in general is a verycomplicated phenomenon which comprises various aspects and is influenced bymany factors. The influences of the Internet are not limited toconsumer purchase decisions. The Internet also influences the way consumersbehave in an online market in terms of interaction with different retailers.
It is transforming the distribution ofpurchase over different products and retailers” (Brynjolfsson, Dick and Smith,2010). “The online environment facilitates lower search costs, and offers thepossibility of visiting different retailers at the same time, and comparingvarious alternatives simultaneously. Online retailers are competing to gainmore consumers and increase their market share” (Tih and Ennis, 2006). According to a study conducted by the Internet and Mobile Association ofIndia, the e-commerce sector was expected to reach Rs. 2,11,005 crore byDecember 2016.
The study also stated that online travel accounts for thebiggest share i.e. 61% of the e-commerce market.
Overall e-commerce market hadreached Rs 1,07,800crores (US$24 billion) by the year 2015 with both onlinetravel and e-tailing contributing equally. India had an internet user base of about 354 million asof June 2015 and is expected to cross 500 million in 2016. Inspite of being onthe second position regarding internet user base in the world, only laggingbehind China (650 million, 48% of population), the penetration of e-commerce inIndia is low in comparison to markets like the United States (266 million,84%), or France (54 M, 81%), but is still growing at a good rate by making an addition of around 6 million newusers every month.
India’s e-commerce market value was approximately about $3.9billion in 2009, it went up to $12.6 billion in 2013. In 2013, the e-retailsegment was worth US$2.3 billion. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYMany studies have addressed the issues of online behaviour by directlyapplying the knowledge of traditional purchase to the Internet context. Onlinepurchase behaviour is different from the traditional one and current knowledgeof online consumer behaviour is still limited” (Dennis et al., 2009).
Hence, increasingthe theoretical knowledge in this area, which considers the particularcharacteristics of the online environment, is crucial. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY This is aconceptual study that mainly aims at drawing out variables that affectpurchasing in an online setup. In this study an exploratory approach has beenadopted to find out the factors affecting the behavior of consumers to buyonline through study of existing literature in various thesis and journalsrelated to online marketing. Sr. No. Author Study Findings 1.
Chen, Y.H.& Barnes, S. (2007) Initial trust and online buying behavior” The study examined consumers’ online trust by four perspectives or determinants :perceived technology, perceived risk, company competency and trust propensity. Online trust was found to have significant relationship with perceived security, privacy, reputation, customization, familiarity with online buying and purchase intention. 2 Berter,E.& Blomqvist,C.
(2010) Online consumer sales promotion in retail clothing companies The findings of the study revealed that loyalty programs and discounts are the most effective sales promotion tools in Europe. Other sales promotion tools such as samples, Advertising specialities, cross promotion were not much significant. 3. Kwek Choon Ling (2010) The effects of shopping orientations, online trust and prior online purchase experiene toward costumer’s online purchase intention The results of the study showed that shopping orientation in context of impulse purchase, quality orientation, brand orientation, online trust of the customers in online shopping and prior purchase experience of online purchases had a positive impact on the creation of positive intention of customers. 4.
Foroozan Kamari and Saeid Kamari (2012) Trust in electronic commerce: A new Model for Building online Trust in B2C The proposed model outlined some key factors for understanding the key issues relevant for building good relations with customers on the internet. The model consisted of four variablesviz–professionalism,reputation,trustworthiness,technology incentives that have a significant contribution in trust building in online environment. Professional graphics, design and capabilities of a website, proper branding were considered to be effective elements for enhancing the trust factor. 5. Mohammad Harisur et.
al (2012) Developing online shopping intention among people”: Bangladesh perspective The study developed a conceptual model for developing customer’s intention and motivation level towards online shopping. The model developed indicates that online purchase decision or intention depends on the customer’s attitude towards online buying and this attitude further developed by the belief customers pose on perceived consequences and some other influencing factors. 6. Nasir,et.al(2012) Social media and buying behaviour of women in Pakistan towards the purchase of textile garments” The findings of the study revealed that friends and family opinion i.
e. word of mouth and referral plays a big role in creating brand awareness among Pakistani women. Friends and Family opinion was most influential on Pakistan women’s buying decision in comparison to online recommendations. 7. Fatema, K. & Stephen, T. (2012) Online shopping environments in fashion shopping : An S-O-R based review The study revealed that risk perception and trust are the two most important variables that influence the consumers intention to purchase online. Environmental stimuli mainly influence cognitive processes such as risk perception and website trustworthiness , pleased and aroused consumers are more likely to purchase and have positive behavioural intention.
8. Yong, L., Hongxiu ,Li.
, Feng, Hu (2013) The findings of the study indicated that convenience factor has a positive influence on consumer’s intent to buy online. The price variable was found to have no impact on online purchase intentions. Product type characteristics were also found to have a positive impact on consumer’s behaviour to shop online. 9. Aindrila Biswas, Jagjeet Ajmani and Mousumi Roy (2014) Leveraging factors for online shopping The results of the study concluded that online shopping behaviour is affected by multiple factors. Product quality, trust on the information provided by online sellers were the factors that make customers sensitive towards online shopping. Consumers inclination towards online shopping is dependent upon the user friendliness of online buying process and variety of product offerings and the value for money provided by online shopping. 10.
L. Richard Ye and Hao-hong Zhang (2014) Applying the Technology Acceptance Model in consumer-to-consumer market places The results of the study supported the TAM based research Model indicating that consumer’s buying behaviour and intention in C2C transactions can be easily predicted by checking the impact of sales promotion, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. 11. Tanushree chauhan, Pankaj Dalal (2014) Review on factors affecting quality of B2C website” Various factors were determined on the basis of the results of the literature survey such as usability, reliability, trustworthiness on the part of customers, easy access, security of transactions and efficiency that assess the quality of a website. 12.
Rashid Hussian and Aminu Adamu (2014) The impact of social media on virtual marketing in Nigeria The effect of social media promoters viz– Facebook, Twitter, E-mail, online chat, E-discussion was investigated on customers online buying decision. The results of the study showed that Facebook and twitter were the two most important social media websites that influenced online buying of Nigerian customers. 13.
Bulbul Ahamed, S.M. Monirul Islam, Kismant Qaom (2015) Customers attitude towards E-Commerce in Bangladesh The findings of the study revealed that among the eleven attributes finally selected for evaluation, easy information searching opportunity was considered most important and return facility if needed and activeness of customer care was least important attribute. 14. Garima Malik and Himanshu Sachdeva (2015) Impact of sales promotion technique used online dealers on consumers” The results showed that promotional emails, promotional SMS, discounts, user friendly interface, promotional POP ups, convenience and sales promotion influences were the factors that played a big role in shaping the behaviour of online consumers.
15. Jenyo, G. K. & Soyoye, K. M. (2015) Online marketing and consumer purchase behaviour: A study of Nigerian firms The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between online marketing and consumer purchase decisions. The unique internet characteristics such as easy access to information, functionality of the websites, sites usability, interactivity have huge impact in modifying the behaviour of the consumers. 16.
Otugo Nkiru Esther et. al (2015) Social Media Advertising/Marketing: A study of awareness, attitude and Responsiveness The findings of the study revealed that Nigerian Youths especially the undergraduate students were regular users of Facebook. Majority of the Nigerian youths were well aware of the Facebook Ads ranging from product advertisements, telecommunication, fashion accessories on mobile phones. The youths believed that using social media for advertisements is good and they had a positive response towards Facebook ads and said that if they are fan of any brand on Facebook they could think of buying it.
17. Živil? Baubonien?,Gintar? Gulevi?i?t? (2015) E-commerce factors influencing consumers online shopping decision The study concluded that convenience, simplicity and better prices were the main drivers of online shopping. Comparison of prices online , lack of time and wide range of products were the reasons for the online consumers of age group between 25-35 yrs to adopt online shopping.
18. Aineah,N.. (2016) Factors influencing online purchasing intention among college students in Nairobi city The findings showed that there is a strong positive relationship between intention to purchase online and Transactional Security, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use. Perceived Usefulness was the most important variable followed by Perceived Ease of Use and lastly by Transactional Security. 19.
Jadhav, V., & Khanna, M. (2016) Factors Influencing Online Buying Behavior of College Students: A Qualitative Analysis The study explored the factors influencing buying behavior of college students using content analysis. The major influencers found were availability, low price, promotions, comparison, convenience, customer service, perceived ease of use, attitude, time consciousness, trust and variety seeking. 20. Yi Zin Lim et.
al (2016) Factors influencing online shopping behaviour: The mediating role of purchase intention The study depicted that subjective norm and perceived usefulness significant positively influence online purchase intention but subjective norm insignificant influence shopping behavior in a negative way. Finding also revealed that purchase intention has a significant positive influence on online shopping behavior. 21. Rani,Suchitra.
t. et.al (2017) Online Shopping Purchase Patterns with Special Reference to Demographic and Informational Influence The study found that the gender and age had no role in influencing online buying decisions and poor quality and fakeness were the major negative factors that deter online purchasing. Social media was the main informational source that had an impact on the choice of websites. FINDINGS& CONCLUSION A lot of research has been conducted till date toevaluate the impact of E-marketing strategies on the buying behavior ofconsumers.
The study explored that web based factors affecting online shopping.The findings of the various studies taken into consideration for reviewelucidate that consumers positive attitude towards online shopping, behaviouralfactors, demographic factors, psychological factors, risk perception, trust,prior purchase experience of online shopping, functionality aspects such as functionalityof the websites, internet infrastructure are the major influencers of onlineshopping. Nowadays , social media also has a big role in creating brandawareness . Facebook Ads and Twitter are the biggest contributors in thatcontext.
Amongst the sales promotion techniques employed, loyalty programs anddiscounts are the foremost important factors. For the E-marketers to besuccessful in their marketing campaigns, they need to understand and embibe theabovementioned factors related to the virtual environment in their strategiesto convert more and more offline prospects into online prospects and also toeffectively retain the existing one.