Abstract Happiness at the workplace refersto how satisfied people are with their work and lives. Employee wellbeing is linkedto the happiness of the employees. Employee wellbeing at the workplace is criticalfor improving output in any organization. To increase productivity employeewellbeing should be enhanced in organization. Therefore, they should know what factors could affect employee satisfactionin order to successfully improve happiness in organization.
This paper presents a potentialconceptual framework of happiness at the workplace that could give valuablecontribution to future research in this area. Keywords: happiness, subjective well-being, workplace.Introduction People perform their work inexchange for either monetary or non-monetary rewards (Stiglbauer &Batinic, 2012). From human resource management (HRM) perspective, HRM practices(e.
g. downsizing, outsourcing) impact the nature and scope of work (Colakoglu,Lepak, & Hong, 2006). Business restructuring which targets to reducethe workers for improving organizational performance perhaps can make workersfeel disappointed with their jobs (Klhe, Zikic, Vian Vianen, & De Patr,2011). Their job satisfaction has an influence on organizational ability toachieve goals (Dlal, Baysingr, Brummel, & Lebreton, 2012).
If they aresatisfied with work, their output would be improved (Barmeby, Bryson, &Eberth, 2012 Moreover, maintaining happiness at the workplace can increaseemployees’ output (Quick ; Quick, 2004). The term “happiness” has beendiscussed by many researchers (Björke, 2012; Johnston, Luciano, Maggiori, Ruch,& Rossier, 2013). It is related to an individual’s subjective well-being(Angner, Hullett, & Allison, 2011; Jiang, Lieu, & Saato, 2012) or lifesatisfaction (Van Prag, Romnov, & Ferer-i-Carbonel, 2010). Thus, happinessat the workplace refers to an individual’s work and life satisfaction, orsubjective well-being at the workplace (Bhatacharje & Bhattacharje, 2010;Carlton, 2009.
Whereas cheerfulness at the place of work is essential to both workersand the organization (Fisher, 2010; Simoons, 2014).2. Conceptual Framework Happinessin workplaces/organizations is formulated to be effective by some factors suchas employment status, income, friendship, and work activities.
The affiliationbetween independent and dependent variable is moderated by cultural/traditionalvalues. 2.1 Employment Status Employment status refers to anemployment-related circumstances in which an employee is being apprehended (Foorotan,2011). Individuals’ happiness be contingent on their employment status (Frey& Stutzer, 2000b; full-time or part-time employment (Berger, 2009)).Employees generally seek for employment security (Silla, De Cuyper, Gracia,Peiró, & De Witte, 2009). Unemployment status makes people unhappy(Escott & Buckner, 2013). Their experience of unemployment or fear ofunemployment can decrease happiness (Ohtake, 2012). Principally, workers whovalue family attachments may be unhappier with joblessness position if itcauses their family problems (Campbel, 2013).
2.2 Income Income comprises the remunerationand salary grossed by an individual (Maathur, 2012). A study on revenue and satisfactionby Caprale, Georgelis, Tsitsinis and Yian (2009) approves that there is astrong affiliation between a person’s revenue and life happiness.
This isbecause people who have higher revenue have more chances to buy desired goodsand amenities (Frey ; Stuzer, 2002; additionally, people relate theirown salary with others (Lembregts & Pandelaere, 2014; Oshioo & Kobyashi,2011). 2.3 FriendshipFriendship is defined as a closeaffiliation among friends (Huang, 2008). People express their relationshipthrough mood and activities (Huang, 2008; Spencir, 2012). Friendship at theworkplace refers to individuals’ relationship with their peers, subordinates,and managers (Austin, 2009; Leei, 2005; Maio & Hseh, 2012).
Friendship atthe workplace has a positive impact on organizational productivity andemployees’ work approaches towards their jobs (Soang, 2005). Friendship groupsare more committed to their work and lead to higher production (Dotan, 2007)2.4 Work Activities Work activities are the activitiesor duties that are performed by workers (Siccama, 2006). Some workers are happywith their work activities while some employees have harmful experiences atwork (Siegal & McDonald, 2004). They may happy to perform specific workactivities (Tadi? et al., 2013; Waryszak & King, 2001). Thus, supervisorsshould know how to manage the meaning of work for employees (Cleavenger , 2013; Vasconclos, 2008). If workers observe significance of work, theymay be happy to do their service (Dimitrove, 2012; MacMilan, 2009).
2.5 Cultural Values Traditional values are “faithsystems that a society is dedicated to and that are offered down from onegeneration to the succeeding” (Hasan, 2011, p. 11).
The study displays the meanlevel variances of happiness across nations (Dounie et al., 2007). Similarly,this paper supposed that the aforementioned factors (employment status, income,friendship, and work activities) do not have the same effect to workerhappiness in different cultures. People from different cultures value differentthings (Goos, 2012; Lee, Scandura & Sharif, 2014). 3. Discussion Employees are happy when they areunderstanding stable employment (Scherer, 2009). Permanent employees seem to bemore satisfied with their jobs than temporary employees (Ong & Shah, 2012;Scherer, 2009). Sora, Cabaler and Piró (2010) maintain that part time employeesperceive a high level of job uncertainty.
Unstable employment not only makesemployees feel hopeless but also affects the rate of employee revenue and workplaceperformance (Dieke, 2011). This is because part time employees are further expectedto intend to leave their jobs than permanent workers (Soara eit al., 2010).Employment can be considered as an important source of income (Zuvekas , 2000). People who have better work status gain higher income (Shalay, Winraub,Harman, & Tren, 2004).
They may be happier than those who have loweremployment status and gain lower income (Caporale et al., 2009). Friendship atthe workplace facilitates the exchange of resources and ideas among employees(Chang, 2013; Dee’Cruz & Nornha, 2011). It enhances employees’ approachestowards work enactment (Lien, 2010). Thus, employees performing different worklevels could differ in happiness of friendship as well. 4. ConclusionIn this paper, the affiliationbetween independent variables and pleasure at the office is supposed to bemoderated by traditional values. Employee satisfaction may change in differentcultural backgrounds.
Since the concept of happiness is crucial fororganizational performance and efficiency, HR managers need to design andmanage a workplace to enhance employee happiness (Gavin & Mason, 2004; Rego& Cunha, 2008). Happy employees bring their cheerfulness from the workplaceto their family; likewise, they also handover their happiness from their hometo the organization (Asyabi & Mirabi, 2012). This suggests that there is apossible close relationship between an individual’s life and work.