Abortion is termination of pregnancy before its maturity. Pro-choice advocates for women right to decide whether to abort or not, whereas prolife advocate for no abortion. However, both support termination of pregnancy for medical reasons.
Pro-choice are of the opinion that a child should start enjoying human rights after birth. Their view is that when the unborn is in the mother’s womb, then the mother should have the right to decide whether to keep the pregnancy or not (Mangel, 1988). This paper discusses the two sides of pro-life and pro-choice.
Life is precious; it is every person’s reasonability to ensure it is protected. When a man and woman make love and conceive, a life is created in the body of the mother. There are two abortions that can happen, natural abortions; which is a medical condition and intentional termination of pregnancy by a mother. Intentional termination is not because of any danger but on feeling by the pregnant woman that she wants to terminate the pregnancy. Killing is illegal.
After conception, the mother carries a life. She can learn this through movements, unrests in the stomach and wastes from the foetus. After conception, a woman carries a living human being who is entitled to human rights as if living on the physical world. The mother is an agent to carry another life. Sometimes abortion can take place; this is when the life of the mother is at danger because of the pregnancy otherwise, termination of pregnancy is illegal (Sedgh, Henshaw, Singh, Bankole & Drescher, 2007).
In case of rape, there have been debates whether abortion should be allowed. The debate follows the same principle of life, that is life is precious should be respected. The child formed because of rape is innocent. It should enjoy human rights since it is not responsible of the actions that led to its formation.
Prolife are of the view that using morning pills and contraceptives’ is a method of aborting since they aim at flashing some conceptions that have taken place after an intercourse. When women are given the right to terminate a pregnancy, they are likely to misuse these rights thus; the right should not be given. A Country’s constitution is supposed to protect life, after conception, although the life formed cannot be seen by naked eyes, it can be proved existing.
During pregnancy, by the time a foetus is in the third week, the heart starts beating. By the end of the first trimester, the foetus has developed arms, legs among other physical features of a human being. The child is still unborn but when scanned, it has human features.
The only difference that the child has with human beings is that it is not yet born; otherwise, it is a human being. It thus has rights to enjoy human rights. One such right is the right to life. Supporters of abortion are of the opinion that a foetus is a tissue in the body of the mother that can be removed if unwanted; they fail to understand that human body is made of tissues just like the one in the foetus.
Different parts of the world have different religions. One of the most dominant and common feature in all religions is respect for life. In Christianity and Muslimism, which are the most dominant religions in the world, they believe that God has the power to oversee life. They are of the opinion that God is the sole giver of life and is the only one who have power to terminate it when he want.
The biological believe that life starts at conception should thus be respected as it goes in line with the teachings of the two religions. Abortion whether the pregnancy resulted from rape or whether is its unwanted should not be allowed. Medical conditions are an exemption.
The reason behind illegalising of abortion is that human life starts at conception. However, embryo or foetus is not a person thus human life does not start at conception. Characterises that can define a human being lack in a foetus and thus arguing that a foetus is a person is wrong.
A woman has the right of control over her health including deciding whether to keep a pregnancy or terminating it. It is only logical to respect the rights of the person who can be seen and not bother with the unseen person. The unseen baby should not be given the right to life since he has not been born. The child has not lived; only exists in someone and no two lives can live in one or no two rights of the same nature that should be accorded to the same person.
The mother should be given the right to terminate a pregnancy not only on medical grounds but also as matter of choice. The aborting mother and the doctor assisting in the abortion should be protected by a country’s constitution.
Another augment is that the enjoyment of a person’s rights should be to the extent that he does not limit someone else from enjoying his/hers. When a mother does not need a child, then saying that the child should stay because it has rights limits the enjoyment of mother rights thus termination should be allowed at the discretion of the mother.
Contraceptives and morning pills should not be seen as a method of aborting but should be interpolated as pregnancy prevention methods. With this believe, if a mother feels the need to avoid formation of a foetus, then she should be given the right to do so.
The unborn baby is, as a tissue in a woman, which the body can function without thus terminating the pregnancy, is not killing; it is removing a tissue that is not wanted from the body. For a person to enjoy human rights, he should have developed a certain personality that can be hurt by violation of his rights. An unborn child has neither feelings nor personality and thus arguing that the child should enjoy human right is not correct.
Cases of rape have resulted in heated debates. Supporters of abortion are of the opinion that the pregnancy came about not as a will of the mother but a misfortune. They argue that if the mother delivers such a child, she is likely to hate the child as it will remind her of the act, thus, such a pregnancy should be terminated. Supporters of life argue that the child should not be punished because of mistakes done by other people. The child is innocent thus should not be aborted (Wolf, 1997).
Life is precious should be protected. Biologically, life starts when an egg meets sperms. This is the perception that pro-life have. The truth is that there is a change that occurs in a woman’s body which if nurtured leads to life. However, the main augment is whether at this point the life in the woman should enjoy human rights. Pro-choice argues that life and personhood are two different things.
According to them for a person to enjoy human rights, he must have feelings and personhood, which lacks in the case of a foetus (O’Brien, 2005). Personality of the person can only be realized after birth, thus the embryo should not be recognized as a human being before birth. Pro-life counter this argument by arguing that when a pregnancy is terminated, there is life destroyed which has its own personality only that it is not living in the physical world.
They argue that an unborn have feeling, they become angry and are affected by the mothers external environment. They illustrate this by giving the example that if a mother is angry or restless; the child kicks in the womb. This is an indication that it is affected by the feeling that the mother is having. What should be protected is not the personality of the baby but the life that is holy.
This seems to hold more weight. Another aspect that the pro-choice argues, this is the fact that the unborn has no enough size, ability to feel pain, viability, self-awareness, and thus cannot be granted the right of personhood. Pro-life sees this argument from a different angle that human life is precious whether it is the life of unborn or born. They have equal rights, which should be respected (Fergusson, Boden & Horwood, 2007).
A foetus is the initial stage of life; no person could be living in this world if he did not undergo through the foetus stage. Thus, foetus is life at the earliest stage it should thus be respected. Life is a continuous stage where human beings learn different things as they develop thus a foetus is in a silent learning stage that takes place in a mother. It should not be aborted as this will be aborting a life. A foetus cannot fight for its rights, since he is in the unseen world. However, its existence is holy it should be respected.
Prolife and pro-choice come into an agreement that if the life of the mother is in danger, then abortion should be allowed. It should though be the last resort and conducted by an experienced medical officer. In these cases, the doctor and the mother are protected by constitution of a country as well as international medical practicing ethics laws. After a medical abortion, the mother should undergo psychological counselling to overcome abortion traumas (Avalos, 2003). The decision to terminate a pregnancy should only be made by medical practitioner to save the life of the mother.
In the battle for or against abortion, no single side wins; they both have concrete arguments. The pro-life have believed that life starts at conception whereas pro-choice believe that life starts at birth. One thing that gives the pro-life an upper hand is the psychological stress that a woman who has aborted has whether it is medical or intentionally abortion. Both pro-life and pro-choice agree that for medical purposes, abortion should take place.
Avalos, L. (1999). Hindsight and the abortion experience: what abortion means to women years later. Gender Issues, 17(2), 35-57. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&hid=6&sid=1fb36a06-a20d-4dbf-b039-d0b2660cd9e1%40sessionmgr112
Fergusson, D., Boden, J., & Horwood, L. (2007). Abortion among young women and subsequent life outcomes. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 39(1), 6-12. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=6&hid=116&sid=0a3e9112-512e-463e-bc24-e997aceed4ed%40sessionmgr114&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mnh&AN=17355376.
O’Brien, D. (2005). No to Abortion: Posture, Not Policy. America, 192(19), 7. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=6&hid=4&sid=ca28aea0-714a-4085-8dfa 14534bca678c%40sessionmgr15&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=f5h&AN=17123677.
Mangel, C. (1988). Legal abortion: the impending obsolescence of the trimester framework. American Journal Of Law & Medicine, 14(1), 69-108. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=4&sid=6d34a16e-8933-4459-b43a a93acf2b0bbc%40sessionmgr12&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mnh&AN=3068986.
Sedgh, G., Henshaw, S., Singh, S., Bankole, A., & Drescher, J. (2007). Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends. International Family Planning Perspectives, 33(3), 106-116. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=4&sid=d3f03cba-00a8-4861-9fa3-b21da3c1d158%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mnh&AN=18093038.
Wolf, N. (1997). Pro-choice and pro-life. Human Life Review, 23(3), 60. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=116&sid=1df48f84-edc0-43f1-8dd4-6a9345209724%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=f5h&AN=9709301738
The main objective of the paper focuses on abortion and its effects and it is equally an analysis of the developmental problems associated with this act. Another significance of the study regards on various approaches and theories in support or against abortion. The paper also forms an analysis over other probable choices in the subject matter. Lastly, the research takes sides concerning the issue based on the findings.
The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the act of abortion and offer suggestions from the research on ways of availing it as a medical procedure to eliminate the social stigma associated with the act especially for the physicians.
“Abortion is a criminal offence but should be a legalized practice pertinent to the law” This paper is an analysis of effects and support for legalizing abortion, as well as its implication to future societal growth. It is an analysis of dominant arguments and theories for the act at certain circumstances in relation to the style of leadership.
There are considerable amount of pressure in matters concerning abortion. There have been great changes on matter pertaining abortion, for instance legislatives in Mexico voted for a law that decriminalize abortion, seen as a great support especially for the pro-abortion activists who fought the harsh laws that criminalized the act. The problem associated with legalization of abortion concerns its continual illegal practice and thus the deaths of thousands of women all around the globe.
Abortion entails complete expulsion referred to as the spontaneous abortion or it can also be partial termination. The question most people including professional would raise concerns the point where the circumstances are viable. The issue of foetal viability has become a burning legal or scientific debate with varying laws and suggestions among states.
The basic or most dominant argument regarding the morality of abortion is whether the act is justifiable if the mother’s life is in danger. According to Domino (2007), there is a difference between threatened and inevitable abortion but it differs because of the organizational differences regarding the cultural believes and interpretations.
According to him “dilatation, rupture of membranes, or expulsion of products in the presence of vaginal bleeding portends inevitable abortion.” Abortion gets a recommendation when there is profuse virginal bleeding during pregnancies regardless of whether the contractions are present or not. This can be due to these ruptured membranes, expelled products of conceptions, or dilated membranes”
In her writing, Thomson argues based on a difference between claims on the rights of a foetus that ethically, it is obligatory for a mother to take all necessary measures to keeping it alive. According to Thomson (2008), “the foetus is an ethically relevant person and with a right to life but the ethical legitimacy of abortion can survive the concession”. Therefore, the theory implicates that abortion is not always ethically permissible.
The issue of abortion has many controversies such as the comparison between the weights of two conflicting human rights where the most essential one prevails. The right to life may pose as the most important human right. Scientific indications are that every individual life is unique in its nature and weigh more over other life contemplations.
According to Domino (2007), on “managing spontaneous abortion”, abortion gets the extreme act of violation, which is permanent and devastating to the unborn child.
It is an act against infants’ livelihood. Life is justifiable for all unborn children and it continues through early childhood development to adulthood until death. Would it not be more evil for a mother to deliver a child and abandon it in the world to die? Considering such an argument, then people should choose the lesser of any two evils in a given situation, and the argument would prevail.
Morally the conclusion to the argument may be that abortion is a selfish act. Does thus mean that people should quantify caring of the unborn child through out the gestation period regardless of whether the challenges or risks involve less evil compared to other future involvement with the child? The argument negates the existence of possible vices concerning the childbearing procedures.
Philosophically, does one’s control over her body overshadow the fundamental right to life? The argument over this would be a non-existent right to such kind of control. Considering that such a situation exists, the pregnant woman’s rights would outweigh the baby’s rights to life meaning there would be more important life than another would. Contrary, unlike pro-abortion activists, the believers have strengthened their opposition against abortion.
There criticism has heightened in the various sectors of the society making the health divisions incapable of taking a stand over the issue considering that the legalization highly affects the profession. In 2009, thirteen states amended their constitution, which so legislation of more critical measures concerning abortion. With this kind of resistance from the highest political spheres, the matter continues to be of great controversy always linked to the religion.
Another least expected argument especially with legalization of abortion would be the issue of unwanted children. The issue of quality life may be absurd in this context since hard work is what is supposedly meant to redeem poor quality and life has value regardless of quality.
Most people would argument this to be a selfish act since it denies the child its right to live, so that the life of those in existence can improve. Logically, doest this imply that we can eliminate those lacking quality life so that those who enjoy some quality can have an improvement?
Is aborting a private act? It is reasonable to state that a child belongs to the society and terminating its life is a loss to the society. Termination of its life in the name of “a private act” would haunt not only the victim but the society as well since the cultural believes and acts shows that we ought to allow moral value to any human being or we face suffering from humanity or values.
Lastly, is Sprengel (1999) post the argument in the Fundamental Issues of Abortion, He indicated the probability of delivering unwanted children who are prone to engaging in crime. Would it be sensible to support abortion on this argument? Justice states that one is innocent until proven otherwise.
Reasonably, the argument would be unjust. The unwanted children who are in existence have a chance to reform. Allowing abortion over such a possibility would presume that the death penalty get uses that are of much less criminal charges than murder. This act would indicate lack of love or concern for humanity.
In line with Sprengel (1999), it is a scientific fact that a child is a unique human being with a right to life. This is more important and fundamental fact over other rights including that of abortion if there exists any, which portrays the act as permissible. According to him, “the strength of pro-life is not because of cleaver artificial definitions that make things convenient but one that acknowledges unique individual life.”
On analysis to offer the available perspectives into allowing but controlling the performance lawfully as the first part of the essay emphasizes, according to Sherwin, (1992) the discussion of abortion overlooks, “the distinctive analysis of feminists’ ethics”. She indicates that most authors will presume acquaintance with common arguments to overshadow women’s right to choosing abortion.
The feminists’ ethics arguments have a focus upon broader frameworks as opposed to moral and general consideration of legal tolerability. There is ignorance over the overall struggle especially within the sexists’ societies over control of women productivity. Women are supposed to respond to their inner feelings and relationships with others.
In line with Sherwin’s writing (1992), there is a lot of tension on the issue of abortion. “No matter how appalling and dangerous the conditions are, women form widely diverse cultures and historical periods have pursued abortions.” She expresses her concern that if abortion is not legalized, made safe and accessible to society, then women will continue to seek illegal and life-threatening acts of foetal-life terminations behind the law.
According to him, activists who are against abortion dismiss her point of view because they are willing to meet the cost of avoiding reality. Loss of women’s lives as they pursue illegal abortions behind the doors is due to the restrictive policies. (Sherwin, 1992)
According to his writing, Singer (1993) argumentatively states that the foetus has no expressible feeling, preferences and subsequently no conscious suffering.
This is an indication that people have different preferences regarding the survival of unborn foetus therefore foetal survival is not a barricade over abortion on condition that the practice is painless. Singer argument proceeds to show that people support the act of abortion on the stand that the mother’s rights overrule those of the foetus.
The literature portrayed by Singer indicates that the unborn child does not understand life and its preferences and therefore if someone has preferences over its existence, preferably within the first month of the development period, then termination would be justifiable. (1993)
According to various moral controversies concerning the issue of abortion investigated in this paper, a conclusion view indicates that the act ought to be permissible over special scenarios, which should correlate to the laws of the country or state. There ought to be clarity and certainty that pertains the law over such critical matters. (Victoria Law Reform Commission, 2002)
Most ruling would lack clarity over lawful abortion and the extent on prohibition of the same. The law must provide a straightforward legal setting for physicians to conduct their operations. This would include analysis of the woman’s circumstances. All actions ought to be supportive to the best interest of the patient.
Women suffer from distress and humiliation on the hands of physicians because of the stigma associated with the act especially when it lacks proper elaboration and thus the deaths associated with abortions.
Domino, F. (2007). The 5-minutes clinical consult Abortion, Spontaneous. 16th Ed Washington DC. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins publishers
Singer, P. (1993) Taking Life: The Embryo and the Fetus’ in Practical Ethics (2nd Ed)
Sprengel, M. K. (1999, October 27). Fundamental Issues of Abortion. Heritage House’76 inc. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://www.abortionfacts.com
Sherwin, S. (1992). No Longer Patient: Feminist Ethics and Health Care, Philadelphia: Temple University Press
Thomson, J. J. (2008) Abortion. Boston Review, Retrieved February 1, 2010 from
http://bostonreview.net/BR20.3/thomson.html> at 15 February 2008.
Victoria Law Reform Commission. (2002) Laws of Abortion. Melbourne Victoria (Second Ed) Retrieved February 1, 2010 from www.lawreform.vic.gov.au