a.   The central difference between non-centralizedand centralized political system are mainly about the political structure andpower distribution. Non-centralized political system includes bands and tribes;and the power and control over certain areas and resources are distributedamong members of the society.

On the other hand, centralized political systemis a political system that includes chiefdoms and states, in which particularindividuals and institutions hold power and control over resources. In anthropologicalapproach, political systems are viewed more broadly to show us some of theimportant insights, and those insights are about the political structures,authority, and the matter of power applied in different societies. For example,not like political science, politics explained by anthropologists is not simplyall about the formal state or institutions’ power and functionality, but ratherit is also about the way people manage their daily social relations throughforce, violence, and control over resources.Through investigating deeply into diverse practices and expressions ofdifferent societies, we can have a greater angle on knowing the formalpolitical institutions of a society.

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Indeed, concepts such as cooperation,conflict, and power are rooted in people’s everyday social interactions, beliefsystems, and cultural practices.  

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