; relationship between sense of community and

;Prezza (2008) hypothesized that community political orientation is a moderating variable, affecting the relationship between sense of community and personal political orientation.

With such a large amount of Latino decent from a variety of locations, their origin and migration process is an influence on their lifestyle. One family, here for generations from Puerto Rico, acculturation, the process of learning and behavioral adaptation to a new culture, to American culture quickly due to exposure; whereas the family here from Cuba, who just arrived to escape government dictatorship, might take a longer time to assimilate, if ever.Latinos value traditions and traditional ways of behaving that are congruent with factors such as gender roles (Frevert, 1998). Males typically tend to lead the family; they make the decisions, obtain employment, and speak for the whole family, and the mother is the housekeeper and behavior controller. There is the authoritative father and the submissive mother in each household. Latinos identify themselves that begins with the family.

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Mendez-Villarubia (1994) proposed an equation to conceptualize Latin self-identity: friends + family = self.It is their evaluation of the family and group in determining their lifestyle; the more friends, more affiliations then the more they are liked and respected. Latino’s view on religion is that whatever happens is suppose to happen, fate.

Occurrences of events are related to luck, God’s will, and the bad wishes of enemies (Frevert, 1998). The more important aspect of time for Latinos is the present: contrast to Caucasian American’s importance on the future. Latinos frequently focus on the present, since fate will determine future events and fate is beyond control (Frevert, 1998).Family plays a huge impact on the individual’s social and emotion.

Latinos give so much importance to the family that marriage, in the traditional Latin culture, is the union of two families and not only of two individuals (Frevert, 1998). Males in the Latin culture will seek advice and assistance only from other male family and friend members. Psychological cautions when working with the Latin culture. Be careful and aware of translation with language since some concepts don’t cross language lines. There are American concepts the Latin culture do not have words for.

Mental illness and disabilities are viewed differently in the Latin culture. The DSM-IV suggests that “the particular symptoms, course, and social response are very often influenced by local cultural factors” (p. 844 ). Situational complaints of Latinos who migrated include depression, anxiety, feared loss of control, even helplessness, fatigue, and eating problems. With a strong belief in fate many Latinos believe that mental illness and diseases are meant to happen. That is that they are being punished or tested by God.They are less likely to seek help due to some stigmas attached to services or fear of further punishment. Resilience in full acculturation and legislation restriction to the Latino population puts restrictions on employment and income.

The Latin culture tends to be in the lower social-economic status; they work labor jobs that usually pay under the table and without citizenship do not vote in American elections. Prejudice When a group or affiliation is judged, or has a preconceived belief and opinion about them they are suffering from prejudice.Prejudice treatment from the society in which the group lives pushes the community lines between them further and further apart. Those lines decrease the acculturation between the groups impacting both sides room for growth. The effect is much stronger if conditions make contact optimal, such as the presence of institutional support, the possibility for increased knowledge, equal status and co-operative interaction (Dovidio, 1998).

When a society or government recognizes and acknowledges people of different cultures, it becomes more acceptable among citizens.The need to build and maintain a positive social identity is considered one of the causes of intergroup prejudice. Allport (1954) wanted to look at a factor able to reduce prejudice is close, pleasant interpersonal contact between people from different groups. He found that the more interaction between the groups the lower the prejudice outbursts.

Pettigrew (1958) showed that racial prejudice in South Africa and the United States is strongly influenced by socio-cultural factors. He found that in a culture steeped in racial values, conformity to values of intolerance was associated with ethnic prejudice.The influence of personal political orientation, community ethnic composition, contact with immigrants and socio-demographic factors on prejudice (Prezza, 2008). Another line of studies investigated personal political orientation and found higher levels of prejudice in subjects with right-hand with left-wing political sympathies (Pettigrew, 1995). They found that people with a low educational level and younger people had higher prejudice scores. Differences between people with right- and left-wing sympathies can be traced to what they believe about the inequalities present in society.

On the one hand, sense of community has in common with social identity the component of membership and its subcomponent of identification; but on the other hand, sense of community presents other components, namely influence, integration, satisfaction of needs and shared emotional connection (Prezza, 2008). It seems that even if people do not formally adhere to the official political orientation of the community they live in, they are influenced by it and tend to accept the dominant social norms (Prezza, 2008).In the different studies, they each looked at several factors that play roles in a person’s development and behavior within their socio-political communities. The factors of healthcare, immigration, and prejudice are not only impacted by the society but on the culture, or group, they impact. One’s sense of belonging and acceptance is shown through their involvement in their society. Voting in elections, participating in community events, and contributing to the overall well-being of a community are ways that citizens show their appreciation.When does not feel part of the community through prejudice, isolation of immigration, or differential healthcare then they are less likely to be active members of the society.Reference Allport, G.

W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Oxford, England: Addison-Wesley. Bronfenbrenner U, Morris PA.

1998. The ecology of developmental processes. In Handbook of Child Psychology. Vol. 1: Theoretical Models of Human Development, ed. W Damon, RM Lerner, pp. 993-1028. New York: Wiley.

5th ed. Bronfenbrenner U, Crouter A. 1983. The evolution of environmental models in developmental research. In Handbook of Child Psychology.

Vol. 1. History, Theory, and Methods, ed. W Kessen, PH Mussen, pp. 357-414.

New York: Wiley Carducci, B. 2002. The Psychology of Personality. Belmont, CA.

Wadsworth/Thompson Dovidio, J. F. , Gaertner, S. L.

, ; Validzic, A. (1998). Intergroup bias, status, differentiation, and a common in-group identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 109-120. Frevert, V. S. and Miranda, O.

1998. A conceptual formulation of the Latin culture and the treatment of Latinos from an Adlerian psychology perspective. The Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol 54(3) pp. 291-309.Mendez-Villarrubia, J.M.

(1994). Issues in the assessment of Puerto Rican and other Hispanic clients, including ataques de nervios (attacks of nerves). Using DSM-IV: A clinician’s guide to psychiatric diagnosis (pp. 141-196). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aroson, Inc.

Pettigrew, T. F. (1958). Personality and sociocultural factors in intergroup attitudes: A cross- national comparison. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 29-42. Pettigrew, T. F.

, ; Meertens, R. W. (1995). Subtle and blatant prejudice in western Europe. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 57-75. Pretty, G. H. , Chipuer, H.

M. , ; Bramston, P. (2003).

Sense of place amongst adolescents and adults in two rural Australian towns: The discriminating features of place attachment, sense of community and place dependence in relation to place identity. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 273-287. Prezza, M. , Zampatti, E. , Pacilli, M. , ; Paoliello, A. (2008).

Territorial sense of community, ethnic prejudice and political orientation. Journal of Community ; Applied Social Psychology, 18(4), 315-332. U. S. Bureau of the Census (2010). Hispanic population from the March 2010 current population study (on-line).

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