A study of wireless protocols for industrial
IoT focusing on performance, security and power efficiency.
In recent years, industrial internet of things (Industrial IoT) has
become the most popular industrial technical paradigms and business concepts.
With the continuous integration of emerging information and communication
technologies (ICT), the industry is envisaged to experience a revolution in its
way of operating toward autonomous (Meng Z. et al, 2017). The envisioned industrial
systems can potentially empower collaborative Practices, which promises greater
production flexibility and product variability with minimized human
interventions. As an example, new services such as real-time event processing
or 24/7 access to tracking information will be introduced into the supply chain
(Sanchez-Iborra, R. Cano, M. 2016). Having a thorough monitoring system
deployed all along the manufacturing and supply chain allows enriching the
complete value chain with precious information, minimizing losses against
unexpected events, and hence improving both business processes and the
information exchange among stakeholders (Business-to-Business (B2B) networks) (Stock,
T. Seliger, G. 2016). Industrial IoT, incorporates machine learning and big data technology, harnessing the sensor data machine-2-machine (M2M)
communication and automation technologies that have existed in industrial
settings for years. What’s changing is that the Industrial IoT concept is
driving the automation industry to ensure greater interoperability of its
products. And that means it’s time to find standards to apply to these
technologies and their applications.
Analyzing Industrial IoT through
modelling is to be regarded as the best way of the study for better understanding
of the challenges imposed by such systems. As modelling of the Industrial IoT
is related to a wide context, we categorize the related work into the following
categories from i to iv
Research trends in Industrial
Gubbi et al. present a
cloud-centric vision to implement the Industrial IoT worldwide. They discuss
the core technologies and application areas that can define the IoT research
direction in the future. While Jara et al. consider the
challenges and opportunities in extending the public IPv4 address space for the
Internet of Everything through IPv6 to support the IoT capabilities. Sallai, G.
first summarizes the challenges of the Current Internet and draws up the
visions and recent capabilities of the Future Internet and then, Sallai, G. identifies
the clusters of the relevant research topics defining them as the chapters of
Future Internet research activities in a layered model. It includes basic
research on the Internet Science, the Internet Engineering up to the Future
Internet applications and experiments.
sensor networks (WSNs) provide a virtual layer in which the data about the
physical world can be retrieved by any computing system. Alcaraz et al. emphasize that WSNs are an invaluable
resource for realizing the vision of the IoT in terms of integration, security
and other issues. The collection, modelling, reasoning and distribution of
context with respect to sensor data as well as context aware computing play a
critical role in the IoT applications.
and privacy challenges
Babar et al. provide
analysis of IoT in the context of security, privacy and confidentiality issues
and propose the Security Model for the IoT (Babar
et al. make analyses of the Internet of Things with regard to security, privacy
and confidentiality and propose the security model for the Internet of Things.).
Weber considers new security and privacy challenges from the international
legislation that is pertaining to the right to information, provisions
prohibiting or otherwise limiting the use rules on IT security legislation,
supporting the use mechanisms of the IoT(Weber
considers new security and data protection challenges arising from
international law in relation to the right to information, provisions
prohibiting or otherwise restricting the application of IT security law rules,
in support of IoT usage mechanisms.). Skarmeta et al. propose a
distributed capability-based access control mechanism. The latter is based on
public key cryptography in order to cope with some security and privacy
challenges in the IoT. Their solution uses the optimized Elliptic Curve Digital
Signature Algorithm inside the smart object. Slavin et al. introduce
the security requirement patterns that represent reusable security practices
that software engineers can apply to improve security in their systems. The
paper proposes a new method that combines an inquiry cycle-based approach with the feature diagram notation to review only relevant patterns and
quickly select the most appropriate patterns for the situation(1 Skarmeta et al. propose a distributed,
capacity-based access control mechanism. The latter is based on public key
cryptography to address certain security and privacy issues on the Internet of
Things. Your solution uses the optimized digital signature algorithm of the
elliptical curve in the Smart object. Slavin et al. provide templates of
security requirements that represent reusable security practices that software
engineers can apply to improve the security of their systems. The paper
proposes a new method that combines a review cycle approach with scoring of the
characteristics diagram to examine only those models that are relevant and
quickly select the most appropriate ones for the situation.)(2 Skarmeta et al. propose a distributed and capacity-based access control
mechanism. It relies on public key encryption to address certain security and
privacy issues on the Internet of Things. Your solution uses the optimized
digital signature algorithm of the elliptical curve in the Smart object. Slavin
et al. provide models of security requirements that represent reusable safety
practices that software engineers can apply to improve the security of their
systems. The document proposes a new method that combines a review cycle
approach with the characteristic diagram notation to examine only the relevant
models and quickly select those that are best suited to the situation.) . Heer et al. discuss the
problems and application possibilities of the known Internet protocols and security
solutions in the IoT. The authors also describe the deployment model and the
core security requirements and emphasize the technical restrictions being
specific to the standard IP security protocols. (Heer et al. discuss problems
and possibilities to apply known Internet protocols and security solutions in
IdOT. The authors also describe the implementation model and basic security
requirements and focus on the technical limitations of standard IP security
Security and privacy Energy issues within IoT
Energy consumption (EC) is the key
problem in IoT. Zhou et al. describe the energy models (EMs) of the WSN
node core parts, such as processors, radio frequency modules and sensors. The
basis of EM is the event trigger mechanism. The authors first simulate the node
components and then estimate the EC of network protocols using this EM. The
model presented here is suitable for WSN EC analysis, for evaluation of network
protocols and for WSN application development. Schmidt et al. describes a method to construct models for
sensor nodes based on few simple measurements. They provide a sample where
models are integrated in a simulation environment within the proposed runtime
framework to support the model-driven design process. Measurements show that
the proposed model enables to significantly reduce EC. Lanzisera et al. propose a
‘communicating power supply’ (CPS) to enable the communication of energy and
control information between the device and a building management system..
Friedman and Krivolapov describe a study that deals with a combined effect of
power and throughput performance of the Bluetooth and Wi-Fi usage in smart
phones. The study discloses some interesting effects and trade-offs. In
particular, the paper identifies many situations in which Wi-Fi is superior to
Bluetooth, countering previous reports. The study also identifies a couple of
scenarios that are better handled by Bluetooth. The conclusions from this study
give the preferred usage patterns that might be interesting to researchers and
smart phone developers. Venckauskas et al. present the configurable IoT prototype unit
that enables to perform various experiments in order to determine the
relationship between energy and security in various modes of the IoT unit. The
paper also presents a methodology of measuring the energy of the IoT unit.
While applying, the methodology provides results in two different modes: ideal
(without effect of noises within a communication environment where the IoT unit
works) and real (with effect of noises). (
Energy consumption (EC)
is a major problem for IoT. Zhou et al. a description of the energy models
(EMs) of the central parts of the WSN node such as processors, radio frequency
modules and sensors. EM is based on an event activation mechanism. The authors
first simulate the node components and then evaluate the EC network protocol
using this EM. The model presented here is suitable for the EC WSN analysis,
network protocol evaluation and WSN application development. Schmidt et al. describes the method of
constructing sensor node models based on a few simple measurements. They form a
sample in which the models are integrated into a simulation environment within
the proposed runtime framework to support model-based design. Measurements show
that the proposed model allows a significant reduction of EC. Lanzisera et al.
offer a “Communication Power Supply” (CPS) to enable power and
control information communication between the device and the building
management system…. Friedman and Krivolapov describe a study that deals with
the combined energy and bandwidth effect of the usage of Bluetooth and Wi-Fi
connection in smartphones. The study reveals some interesting effects and
compromises. In particular, they identified many situations where Wi-Fi is a
better solution than Bluetooth, which contrasts with previous reports. The study
also identified several scenarios that are better managed by Bluetooth. The
conclusions of this study provide information on preferred usage patterns that
may be of interest to scientists, researchers and smartphone developers.
Venckauskas et al. present a configurable prototype of the IoT, which allows
for various experiments to be carried out to determine the relationship between
energy and safety in different IoT modes. The paper also presents the
methodology of energy measurement in the IoT unit. The methodology provides
results in two ways: ideal (without the influence of noise in the communication
environment in which IoT operates) and real (with the influence of
Quality of service
Shaoshuai et al. propose the
multi-objective decision-making using the evaluation model of service quality.
This model takes into consideration both the state of the system and the user
settings to improve the model of the QoS validity. The calculated assessment of
the proposed model can be used as a parameter for estimation and selection of
service. Jin et al. present various architectures of IoT for smart
city applications and determine their required network QoS. As QoS is one of
the major networking challenges, the topic is at the focus in both wired and
wireless networks. In WSNs, many researches pursue problems related to radio
interfaces and radio noise interference. Fok et al. state that, in order to meet the individual
needs of many systems, users require multi-dimensional QoS. In this respect,
the authors present a simple abstraction mechanism, which consists of QoS
functions of each application. This function combines various aspects of QoS
for each user to a single value, which is used to define the best method of
interaction. Liang et al. address the discontinuous
reception/transmission (DRX/DTX) optimization, by asking how to maximize the
sleep periods of devices while guaranteeing their QoS, especially on the
aspects of traffic bit rate, packet delay and packet loss rate in the IoT
applications. There are proposed efficient schemes to optimize DRX/DTX
parameters and schedule devices’ packets with the base station. The main idea
of the presented scheme is the balance between the QoS parameters and DRX/DTX
configurations. Simulation results show that schemes can guarantee traffic bit
rate, packet delay and packet loss rate while saving energy of user equipment.
Shaoshuai et al.
provides decision making through a model for evaluating service quality. This
template takes into account both the system status and the user settings to
improve the QoS validity model. The calculated evaluation of the proposed model
can be used as a parameter for evaluating and selecting the service. Jin et al.
introduces different IoT architectures for intelligent urban applications and
defines your desired QoS network. Since QoS is one of the biggest network
challenges, this topic focuses on wired and wireless networks. Several studies
within the framework of the WSM deal with radio interface and interference
problems. Seal et al. claim that users need a multidimensional QoS to meet the
individual needs of several systems. In this sense, the authors present a
simple abstraction mechanism consisting of the QoS function of each application.
This function combines different aspects of QoS for each user in a value that
is used to define the best method of interaction. Liang et al. aims at
discontinuous reception/transmission optimization (DRX/DTX) and asks how to
maximize device downtime while ensuring QoS for devices, especially in terms of
bit rate, packet delay and packet loss rate for IoT applications. Pproposed
efficient schemes are provided to
optimize the DRX/DTX parameters and the device packages programmed with a base
station. The basic idea of the schema is a well-balanced relationship between
QoS parameters and DRX/DTX configurations. Simulation results show that schemes
can guarantee traffic bit rate, packet delay and packet loss rate while saving
energy for the user’s devices.
The aim of this project is to provide
a study of wireless
protocols for industrial IoT focusing on performance, security and power
efficiency targeting to identifying the abstract security–energy relationships for
the variety of wireless communication protocols to provide the energy
performance measurements (using the created environment and the IoT unit) in
order to test the feature models and to obtain the concrete characteristics of
project will focus on analysing wireless
protocols for industrial IoT focusing on performance, security and power
In addition to the typical tasks of conducting a
literature review and thesis writing, we also envisage the
following research tasks (RT) in this project.
What are the wireless protocol with enhance performance, security and power efficiency?
Research efforts will focus on understanding and utilising the relationship and
dependencies between the performance,
security and power efficiency.
to test and validate the different wireless protocol.
1=Results from Research design/experimentation from S1 of first year
2= Results from Research design/experimentation S1 of second year
= Results from Output 2 after Research design/experimentation
compilation and final defence
As part of this research anticipated outcomes,
we expect to have
1. Identifying a suitable wireless protocols
that will enhance performance, security and power efficiency in industrial IoT.
2. At least two research publications in the targeted journals and
conferences in the table below.
IEEE Internet of
Journal of Networks
International Journal of Communication Systems
International Conference on Advanced Technologies
International Telecommunication Networks and
Applications Conference (ITNAC)
International Australasian Telecommunication
Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC)
Alcaraz C, Najera P, Lopez J, Roman R.
Wireless sensor net-works and the internet of things: do we need a complete
integration? Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on the Security of
the Internet of Things (SecIoT’10); 2010.
Babar S, Mahalle P, Stango A, Prasad N,
Prasad R. Proposed security model and threat taxonomy for the Internet of
Things (IoT). Recent Trends in Network Security and Applications Communications
in Computer and Information Science 2010; 89:420–429.
Fok CL, Julien C, Roman GC, Lu C. Challenges
of satisfying multiple stakeholders: quality of service in the Internet of
Things. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Software Engineering for Sensor
Network Applications. 2011; 56–60.
Heer T, Garcia-Morchon O, Hummen R, Keoh SL,
Kumar SS, Wehrle K. Security challenges in the IP-based Internet of Things.
Wireless Personal Communications 2011; 61(3):527–542.
Friedman R, Krivolapov Y. On power and
throughput tradeoffs of WiFi and Bluetooth in smartphones. IEEE Transactions on
Mobile Computing 2013; 12(7):1363–1376.
Jara AJ, Ladid L, Skarmeta A. The Internet of
Everything through IPv6: an analysis of challenges, solutions and
opportunities. Journal of Wireless Mobile Networks, Ubiquitous Computing, and
Dependable Applications (JoWUA) 2013; 4(3):97–118.
Jin J, Gubbi J, Luo T, Palaniswami M. Network
architecture and QoS issues in the internet of things for a smart city.
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Communications and Information
Technologies (ISCIT).IEEE. 2012 Oct.; 956–961.
Lanzisera S, Weber AR, Liao A, Pajak D, Meier
AK. Communicating power supplies: bringing the internet to the ubiquitous
energy gateways of electronic devices. IEEE Internet of Things Journal 2014;
Liang JM, Chen JJ, Cheng HH, Tseng YC. An
energy-efficient sleep scheduling with QoS consideration in 3GPP LTE-advanced
networks for Internet of Things. IEEE Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits
and Systems 2013; 3(1):13–22.
Michael Bowne, Standards
and Protocols for the Industrial Internet of Things.url https://www.automationworld.com/article/topics/industrial-internet-things/standards-and-protocols-industrial-internet-things. PI
North America, on February 19, 2015
Meng, Z. Wu, Z. Gray, J.,A
Collaboration-Oriented M2M Messaging Mechanism for the Collaborative Automation
between Machines in Future Industrial Networks. doi:10.3390/s17112694. Vol. 17,
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Sallai G. Future Internet visions and
research clusters. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica 2014; 11(7):5–24.
Sanchez-Iborra, R. Cano, M. State of the Art
in LP-WAN Solutions for Industrial IoT Services. Sensors}, VOL 16 2016, NO , Journal
708 http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/16/5/708, ISSN 1424-8220.
Schmidt D, Kramer M, Kuhn T, When N. Energy
modelling in sensor networks. Advance in Radio Science 2007; 5:347–351.
Shaoshuai F, Wenxiao S, Nan W, Yan L.
MODM-based evaluation model of service quality in the Internet of Things.
Procedia Environmental Sciences 2011; 11:63–69.
T. Seliger, G. Opportunities of sustainable manufacturing in Industry 4.0. Procedia CIRP 2016, 40, 536–541. ?
Skarmeta AF, Hernández-Ramos JL, Moreno MV. A
decentralized approach for security and privacy challenges in the Internet of
Things. IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT) 2014 : 67–72.
Slavin R, Lehker J-M, Niu J, Breaux TD.
Managing security requirements patterns using feature diagram hierarchies.
Proceedings of the 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE),
IEEE. 2014 Aug; 193–202.
Venckauskas A, Jusas N, Kazanavicius E,
Stuikys V. Identification of dependency among energy consumption and Wi-Fi
protocol security levels within the prototype module for the IoT. Elektronika
ir Elektrotechnika 2014; 20(6):132–135.
Weber RH. Internet of Things—new security and
privacy challenges. Computer Law & Security Review 2010; 26(1):23–30.
Zhou HY, Luo DY, Gao Y, Zuo DC. Modeling of
node energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Wireless Sensor Network