The analogy of the relationship
of the upper motor neuron and the lower motor neuron is like the planner and
doer framework. The architect of the movement is the upper motor neuron, while
the doer of the movement is the lower motor neuron.The thinking process occurs
in the cortex of the cerebrum, the home of the upper motor neurons which
journeys down to the spinal cord. Lower motor neurons act
as the signal conduit between the upper motor neurons and the skeletal muscles
to be innervated.  The upper and lower motor neuron are linked
with interneurons in the spinal cord and hence lower motor neurons originate in
this region and extend to the muscle.

 

2. Astrocytes
are multi-taskers as they perform diverse roles from logistical support thru
the shipment of nutrients, juggling the correct ion concentration and
reconstruction during neuronal damage. Due to the core function of astrocyte
with repair and maintenance, reactive astrongliosis as response to injury and
infection is a hallmark feature of CNS disturbance.

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Microglia is Cookie Monster of the central nervous system the
devourer of plaques, injured  neurons and synapses and pathogens in the central nervous system.

 The antipodal extremes of low activity (Autism) to over activity (Alzheimer’s)
produces pathological effects.

 

Oligodendrocytes produces myelin
sheath to cover
axons as insulation in the central nervous system. Lack of myelination occurs
when oligodendrocytes die, and unmyelinated neurons cannot function properly as
seen in multiple sclerosis.