2.1 IntroductionThis part will discussed about theoretical background which will briefly explained some of the past research that have done by other researcher about social media impact on self-esteem. Other than that, part also will explained the theory that can be relate with topic of this research paper.
2.2 Theoretical BackgroundIn order to get to know the topic of the paper better, the researcher have through some of the journal and article about social media impact on self-esteem. The researcher also have gone through some of the reported news about Instagram is the worst social media on self-esteem. Some of the journal that the researcher come mostly from other researcher appear about social media impact on self-esteem. The first literature review explained about uses and gratifications theory. According to the research done by Katz, uses and gratifications happen in four steps, first the audience is active and therefore they use the mass media for specific goal.
Second, the audience choose the media outlet that they believe will make them achieve gratification. Third, the media compete with other sources of media that can provide some satisfaction. Finally, the gratifications that happened from the media bring diversion, entertainment, and information to the audience.
The theory can be applied on the researcher objective which is visual, such as selfies. According to Bui, 2014 he said the motives behind using selfies or the uses and gratifications of selfies depended on the personality of the individual and also on self-esteem levels of the individuals. For the next literature review, it will explained about the looking-glass self theory. According to Cooley, 1902; people tend to use their imaginations to see how they appear to others and what personality they reflect during social interactions and meetings. If someone represents as confident, people will most likely perceive him that way. If a girl represents as beautiful, people will see her that way as well. Last but not least, the literature review will discuss about self-verification theory.
According to Swann, 1983; stated that people verification for self-views and prefer others to see and validate them as they see themselves. Based on Bradford, & Lohr, 1987; Burke & Jan, 1999; Ellison 1993, when individuals receive self-verifying feedback within a group, feelings that one is accepted and valued by others within the group increases worth-based self-esteem. 2.3 Past Research2.3.
1 Instagram as the negative stimuliCan social media affect one’s self-esteem or self-worth? Much has been written about the positive and negative impacts of social media, with particular referenceTo Instagram. The negative impacts focus on the possible relationship between psychological states and anxiety, low self-esteem and low self-confident According to de Vires , (2015) studies that have done reported the indirect relationship between Instagram use and self-perception through negative social comparison and whether that relationship differs depending on whether the individual was initially a happy or unhappy person. Other researcher Chou and Edge (2012) concluded that people who use Instagram frequently have a very firm belief from other users. Who they don’t know very well offline, are living a very healthy, happy and prosperous life than themselves. These assumptions about other lives will causes of depression among individuals. According to Kross et al. (2013), as most people who are using Instagram to overcome their loneliness but only end being less satisfied with their lives.
Other than that, appearance comparison tendency in general, or appearance comparisons to specific target groups on Instagram mediated any relationships between Instagram use and the appearance-related variables. 2.3.2 Instagram wreck youngster self-esteemAccording to Seo, Houstan, Knight, Kennedy & Inglish (2014) there are numerous social media sites and applications that allow teens to promote themselves through photos and videos. Other than that, they feel the need to belong, and interacting on social media platforms in a positive manner can meet those needs. Also to create new relationships and stronger bonds between existing ones. According to Herring & Kapidzic (2015) social media has had a huge impact on young people’s self image.
Teens purposely post stereotypical pictures to show what they thought being sexy and strong. Also suggest that this trend of posting more attractive users to likes their photos and posting more sexualized photos is inherent instead of conscience because of the involvement of media in the lives of youth. Last but not least, according to Gulf News Readers (2015) caused of teens to be more self-centered and lead to narcissism behaviour. With the relationship between self-esteem and the amount of selfies, photos posted to Instagram seeming to have a strong correlation. Other than that, to verify weather self-esteem level and body size acceptance, which are subjective variables. 2.
3.3 Body Image and Body DissatisfactionAccording to Benowitz-Fedricks, Gralia, Messey, Vasagar, Borzekowski (2012) explain how the media way influence people’s perception of the their body image and their self-esteem. Other than that, social comparison in which individuals develop a self-evaluation with comparison to others. Even though people may recognize that model, celebrities and public figure in media are unhealthy but their self-esteem and body image still negatively affected. According to Clay, Vignoles and Dittmar (2005) the body size of women in the media is often more than 20%. In their researched how teens felt after shown images of ultra-thin and averaged sized model.
And come to conclusion that viewing these images negatively correlated with self-esteem and body satisfaction. Example of the question how the users sees through Instagram that will give impact on self-esteem.l Attractiveness is very important if you want to get ahead in our culture.
l In our society, fat people are regarded as unattractive.l Clothes looks better and nice on thin people/models. Based on researcher Mornson & Haton (2009) brought up the fact that the media negatively influence males as well. Also been discovered that a higher level at males correlations with stronger desire to improve one’s body or know as masculinity. 2.
4 The Negative Impact of Instagram on Self-esteem. In this era globalization, we talked about how media portrayal of gender. We watched films and discussed how Barbie dolls, Disney movies, sexiest advertisement, selfies posted and photoshopped in magazines or in social media. Present an ‘ideal’ body image that is ultimately. In turn these portrayals affect the self-esteem to their own body image. According to Time Health (2017) social media posts can also set unrealistic expectation and create feelings of low self-esteem. This may explain why Instagram – where personal photo, take center stage received the impact of users for body image and anxiety. In study by Iteers, Wickham and Aritelli (2002), the results indicated that social comparisons made on Instagram are associated with depression symptoms.
Engaging in frequency social comparisons can negatively impact one’s mental health. Further, individuals with low self-esteem may end up feeling worse due to the effects of social comparison on social media through Instagram. According to Harnandez (), social media give heavily impact towards teens in a self-concept stages point in their lives. Sometimes it can lead to depressions or even anxiety. It could do exact opposite and boost self-esteem.
Some researcher disagree with this and claim that generally it is just the internet which affects the self-esteem of individuals (Valkerburg, Peter and Schouten; 2006)