1Ans: by. “Modprobe “is used to Remove and


A) It is a policy, because there is decision choosing, so polices
mainly determine choice and what will be done.

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B) It is a policy Here there is a choice choosing which
process to be run.

C) It is policy because deciding which Memory space to store
rather than confirming to one point.

D)  It is a mechanism
because it is a permission without getting choice.





a)lsmod , modprobe , insmod and modinfo
all these commands directly done on Linux Kernal Modules for getting information
based on user requirements and  used to
handle the workdone by the kernel modules.Moreover,lnsmod and rmmod  used to  
loading and unloading the modules whereas ismod ,modprobe and modinfo
used to getting the information of modules in linux kernel.


b) “Ismod” command used to List the
information of Kernal Modules .It Show the Status of  

Modules, Size of Module and Used by.

“Modprobe “is used to Remove and Adding the
Module in the linux kernel.

Modprobe – r Module name (used to remove the device driver)

“Insmod” command used to Load the Module into
the kernel.

Insmod filename module name

“Rmmod” command used for removing the module
from the linux kernel.

“Modinfo” command used to get the information
about the particular module or Driver in linux kernel. By using the command we
get File name, Version, Author, Intree and Liscene version.

Syntax: modinfo module name





/proc folder:

This is virtual File system is not really exit .This is a
folder which holds all kinds of activities in linux system ,configuration
parameters and also a processes in the kernel .Here actually files did not exit
,the operating system  create a file for
if the user wants , in the form of fly ware .whenever we want that files we
have to start work from root ,for example if 
we use -l/stat/proc ,we will find that Zero bytes ,but if start from
root “cat/stat/proc” then we find the content inside the file.proc directory
all the process are loaded into the ram and provide link between  point between linux and ram.


 If we use la -l/proc,
we will get lot of directories with integer positive numbers which are unique
process IDs. There are some files which plays a vital role in the directories
are mount, FD, environ, cmdline.

2) It provide the information of the system.

Commands used are:

COMMANDS                                                   USAGE

CPU information

/proc/mrminfo                                                memory

version of the linux system

/proc/loadvg                                                    average load on the kernel module

3) Used to write and read the files and displays it.

For instance command free, read the information from the
meminfo and display it and also format it.

4) It also provide the information of the power management
and also configuration, power interface, status about the network protocols.

It holds the information about the kernel modules, system
network as well hardware information.


A) File Descriptors:

It is an non negative positive integer which provided by the
kernel when user want  to open or closing
any file it handle the file in the kernel by providing the space to it.

It is mainly used for Opening a file and sees how to handle
it and also interface between kernel space and User for to identify the socket resource.

We can do operations such as Read, write and Close.

In the UNIX system calls there are three main calls there,

Stdin     :   Standard Input

Stdout:  Standard

Stderr   : Standard

for instance, we open a ‘file.txt’ ,on that time these
command create file descriptor number in the kernel for to identify the file,
and also if we want to remove or delete 
the file from the kernel then file descriptor identify the integer
number of that file in the kernel tend to delete it.


File Pointer:

File pointer used to make the user more convenient and easier
by Wrapping the file descriptor and by adding the buffer and making the input
and out calls from the kernel.

File Descriptors

File Pointer

File Descriptor is a low level integer in the kernel to
open a file, mostly the functions used in the file descriptors are open,
close and read.

File Pointer Include the Input and output functions like buffering,

It is limited to Linux and Unix only

File pointer is widely used and standard.

It is an index of the table and mostly deal with files

File pointer used to to search for character which is going
to read after that and also locate within the file.


B) Fdopen 

Fdopen is a links with the file descriptor for to continuous
flow of data.

After the opened a file, Fdopen () send a pointer to the
stream as it was successful, otherwise it returns a null pointer to the stream,
and then for to identified an error sets to the error.

Syntax: File *Fdopen (int fildox, const
char *mode)








Fileno links
to the stream pointer to the file descriptor.

If it
Success, Fileno () return an Integer number of the file descriptor which is
associated with the stream otherwise it return -1 and Error set to be find by errno.

Syntax:  Int Fileno (FILE *Stream)




Power shell in windows:

It was developed by Microsoft and it develop in .NET frame
work .The first version power shell is released in the year 2016,whereas latest
version was windows power shell 5.0 ,but now a days i.e. latest technologies ,
it will directly come with operating System. It is a user interface and it is
in the form of scripting language.

Use of Power shell:

Power shell mainly used for Task automation ,and also see
that how the Business maintain its hardware and software .It is also used to
decrease the time taken for difficult task in the administrative department as
well as Used to kill the unwanted process which are disturbing the active

Unix/Linux shell compare to Windows power shell:

PowerShell in windows is Slightly similar to the unix/Linux
Poweshell,because the commands which are used in the Power shell is as same
commands uses in unix/linux  power shell
for example ls ,ms ,mv etc. .whatever cmdlets is slightly different in terms of
aliases .But in the linux/unix all were in the text form and output of these
will be piped ” | “to other command .The main difference in power shell in
windows and linux is the all the cmmands which  goes around object. The use of piping the
command is not just for getting input and output, and it was a full-fledged to
the receiver of the .NET object which we used, it is very easy if we know how
to call input methods.






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