Late-nineteenth-century industrialization is characterized by the development of new big businesses and industries. The process of industrialization proved once again that agriculture was not that important as many people used to think; lots of people were so sick and tired of numerous farmers and their rules, that is why they were eager to change something in their lives in order to feel some changes. With time, even farmers wanted to modernize their work and use as many techniques as possible, taking into account their possibilities. Frequent immigration to America, desire to get some land and be able to develop it, social losses during the wars – all this lead to one fact: industrialization and technological revolution was inevitable. Properly chosen technologies and business strategies turned out to be a significant point in industrialization at the end of 19th century and promoted quicker exchange of information and services, more qualitative and durable products: opening world markets, using of cheap labor, and creating of possible business ventures were the key innovations in business strategies; the development of machinery, frequent use of electricity, maturation of oil, and the extraction of petroleum were the major technological innovations. The end of the 19th century was marked by a kind of revolution that was caused by and, at the same time, had certain influence on the international relations and world history. The Americans were described as “labeled traditionalist, communitarian, republican, liberal, and market- and profit-driven” nation (Licht, 2).
Native Americans created more and more complicated conditions for immigrants: poor people from different countries were eager to change their rural roots and get a chance to work in the big cities. People of various religions and nations came to cities in order to find job, become wealthy, and have more and more opportunities for professional growth. This is why poverty and frequent immigration became the two major factors of nineteenth century industrialization and its rapid success. Though American industrialization was a bit behind the Europe because of really cheap labor from the one hand, and the influence of British colonial policy from the other hand (Goloboy, xiii), the success of the American nation was obvious. The changes took place usually in two spheres: economic and social (Rury, 57). However, America wanted to take leading positions as soon as possible, this is why the development of technologies became crucial as well. However, first of all, the development of business strategies considerably influenced the maturation of American industry. Of course, the most popular business strategy was the use of cheap labor power.
It was not difficult to use people, pay not too much money, and not to care about proper working conditions. This is why factories’ owners had all chances to make much money and use cheap labor. The economy grew considerably within a short period of time, however, poor people remained to be poor, and the middle class people earned more and more. So, the employers did not have to spend much time on searching for proper labor and concentrated more on numerous business ventures and increasing world markets.
Of course, business strategies would not work without proper development of technologies. People’s ability to use electricity promoted a considerable development of electrical motors and other appliances for house holding. People wanted to improve their lives, this is why each technological innovation was interesting both for industry and for home use. The access to natural resources, which enlarge the influence of industrialization, served as a strong reason for numerous competitions and further implementation of technological innovations.
Petroleum was used to produce oil and kerosene and to serve as a proper lubricant. The maturation of American industry was considerably facilitated at the end of the 19th century. The immigration of such a huge number of people is such a short period of time caused the growth of cities and disregard of agricultural traditions. Women realized that they have all chances to work outside, earn money, become a bit independent from men, and get proper education to achieve the desirable purposes (Rury, 78). However, it is necessary to admit that industrialization had a certain impact on family unites and promote their destructions. Women wanted to be free, and men had no idea of how to keep them home; they just did not know what should be done to improve the situation.
This is why they should learn quicker and be ready to analyze the factors, which support industrialization in order not to lose family and family business. So, each aspect of the society underwent certain changes due to maturation of industry. Late-nineteenth-century industrialization was one of the most significant actions, which considerably influenced the development of the whole world. That event caused numerous changes, which lead to dissatisfaction of some people and help the others to enlarge personal incomes.
The use of cheap labor made American industrialization possible, and immigration of people from different countries helped the employers not be bothered with the ideas of where labor could be found. The late 19th century America developed due to numerous changes: desire to work and become independent, take leading positions and control other nations, and the inevitability of industrialization – all these promoted the development of business strategies and technologies in America. But still, taking into consideration all pros and cons of industrialization, it is possible to admit that it was an integral part of our life; and our history, and past, present, and future would not be fulfill, if people did not accept and support industrialization.
Goloboy, Jennifer, L. Industrial Revolution: People and Perspectives. ABC – CLIO, 2008. Licht, Walter.
Industrializing America: The Nineteenth Century (The American Moment). Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. Rury, John, L. Education and Social Change: Themes in the History of American Schooling.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2005.