Ethnography: According to
Hammersly and Atkinson (1983) in ethnographic study the researcher participates
overtly or covertly in people’s daily lives for extensive time inspecting what
is happening, listens to what is being communicated by asking relevant
questions. In other words the researcher collects all the data which is
pertinent to throw light on issues with which the researcher is concerned.
Grounded Theory: Grounded
theory was introduced by Glaser, Strauss, and Corbin (1967). In this
methodology the researcher uses strategies which are inductive in nature for
data analysis. The researcher begins the research with no pre-existing theory,
or propositions, or hypothesis, or expectation of findings but relatively
permits a theory to emerge directly from the data. The aim of the research is not only to
illustrate well the topic of study but also to develop adequate theoretical conceptualizations
of findings. The researcher begins with individual cases which are chosen
before the research, collects and analysis the data simultaneously, conceptualizes
from the beginning, and allows findings and conceptualizations to grow together
and cross-fertilise. One interview builds on the prior data collections and the
conceptualizations that have been developed up to that point. The researcher
gathers thick data and makes the meanings of the participants explicit. The
researcher continues this process until reaching saturation i.e. he is no
longer learning anything new. The researcher’s conceptualizations are based on
his exclusive skills and experiences.
was developed by Garfinkel (1967) and involves the various techniques people
use to carry out everyday activities. An important notion in ethnomethodology
is that of reflexivity whereby social activities not only represent the
everyday social world but also create it on their own.
Conversation Analysis: Conversation Analysis is a
research methodology that grew out of ethnomethodology, and has some unique
methodological features. It studies the social organization of conversation,
the first step is to record the conversation, then a detailed inspection of
tape recordings and transcriptions made from such recordings are analysed and
the final report is prepared.
Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis: Interpretive phenomenological analysis is concerned
with trying to understand lived experience and with how participants themselves
make sense of their experiences. Consequently it is concerned with the meanings
which those experiences hold for the participants.
Phenomenological: The aim
of phenomenological approach is to develop an entire, precise, clear and
coherent description and understanding of a particular human experience. The
researchers achieves his objectives of the study by using special investigator
stance and selects the participants who have experienced the phenomenology,
solicits the information, the data are analysed thoroughly and the final report
Symbolic Interactionism: Symbolic interactionism is of the opinion that the human
interaction is viewed as a set of symbolic, largely linguistic world to a
certain extent than one of causes and effects. In order to understand human
interaction it is necessary to know how the symbols are used.